Advertisement

Evolutionary Psychological Science

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 10–19 | Cite as

Differential Reproductive Behavior Patterns Among the Dark Triad

  • Daniel N. Jones
  • Melissa S. de Roos
Research Article

Abstract

The traits that the Dark Triad of personality (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism) are overlapping but distinctive. Although some have assumed that all three are universally associated with unrestricted sociosexuality, proper statistics on adult samples have not confirmed these assumptions. Latent variable techniques examined the relationships among Dark Triad and different aspects of sociosexuality across two adult samples (N = 1116). With the original Dark Triad measures, a common path model was a marginal fit to the data. However, adding theoretically based additional paths (most especially a negative link between Machiavellianism and short-term sexual behavior behavior) increased the model fit beyond chance, and these additions replicated in a new sample with different measures. The findings support the notion that the Dark Triad are not universally short-term. In particular, Machiavellianism is negatively associated with short-term sexual behavior, underscoring the cautious nature of the trait.

Keywords

Dark Triad Sociosexuality Mating strategies Life history strategy Psychopathy Machiavellianism Narcissism 

References

  1. Bereczkei, T., Deak, A., Papp, P., Perlaki, G., & Orsi, G. (2013). Neural correlates of Machiavellian strategies in a social dilemma task. Brain and cognition, 82, 108–116.Google Scholar
  2. Brewer, G., Abell, L., & Lyons, M. (2013). It’s not just a man-thing: Testing sex as a moderator between peer attachment and machiavellianism, competition and self disclosure. Individual Differences Research, 11, 114–120.Google Scholar
  3. Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon’s Mechanical Turk: a new source of cheap, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Camilleri, J. A., Quinsey, V. L., & Tapscott, J. L. (2009). Assessing the propensity for sexual coaxing and coercion in relationships: factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Tactics to Obtain Sex Scale. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 959–973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Christie, R., & Geis, F. L. (1970). Studies in machiavellianism. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  6. Cleckley, H. The mask of sanity (1st. Edition). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.Google Scholar
  7. Cooper, S., & Peterson, C. (1980). Machiavellianism and spontaneous cheating in competition. Journal of Research in Personality, 14, 70–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deetlefs, J., Chylinski, M., & Ortmann, A. (2015). MTurk ‘Unscrubbed’: Exploring the good, the ‘Super’, and the unreliable on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. UNSW Business School Research Paper, Technical report (2015–20).Google Scholar
  9. Eisenberg, D. T. A., Campbell, B., Mackillop, J., Lum, J. K., & Wilson, D. S. (2007). Season of birth and dopamine receptor gene associations with impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviors. PLoS ONE, 2, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Figueredo, A.J., Gladden, P.R., Sisco, M.M., Patch, E.A., & Jones, D.N. (2015). The unholy trinity: The Dark Triad, sexual coercion, and Brunswik-Symmetry. Evolutionary Psychology, 13, 435–454.Google Scholar
  11. Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Schneider, S. M., Sefcek, J. A., Tal, I. R., & Jacobs, W. J. (2006). Consilience and life history theory: from genes to brain to reproductive strategy. Developmental Review, 26, 243–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Furnham, A., Richards, S. C., & Paulhus, D. L. (2013). The Dark Triad of personality: A 10 year review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass,7, 199–216.Google Scholar
  13. Furnham, A., Richards, S., Rangel, L., & Jones, D. N. (2014). Measuring malevolence: quantitative issues surrounding the Dark Triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 114–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glenn, A. L., & Sellbom, M. (2015). Theoretical and empirical concerns regarding the dark triad as a construct. Journal of Personality Disorders, 29, 360–377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hare, R. D. (2003). The hare psychopathy checklist—revised (2nd ed.). Toronto: Multi-Health System.Google Scholar
  16. Harms, P. D., Williams, K. M., & Paulhus, D. L. (2001). Predictors of love-proneness vs.lust-proneness. Poster presented at the 109th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  17. Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., Hilton, N. Z., Lalumiere, M. L., & Quinsey, V. L. (2007). Coercive and precocious sexuality as a fundamental aspect of psychopathy. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21, 1–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Jackson, J. J., & Kirkpatrick, L. (2007). The structure and measurement of human mating strategies: toward a multidimensional model of sociosexuality. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 382–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jonason, P. K., & Tost, J. (2010). I just cannot control myself: The Dark Triad and self-control. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 611–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jonason, P. K., Li, N. P., Webster, G. D., & Schmitt, D. P. (2009). The Dark Triad: facilitating a short-term mating strategy in men. European Journal of Personality, 23, 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jonason, P. K., Koenig, B. L., & Tost, J. (2010a). Living a fast life. Human Nature, 21, 428–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jonason, P. K., Li, N. P., & Buss, D. M. (2010b). The costs and benefits of the Dark Triad: implications for mate poaching and mate retention tactics. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 373–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jonason, P. K., Kavanagh, P. S., Webster, G. D., & Fitzgerald, D. (2011). Comparing the measured and latent dark triad: are three measures better than one. Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 2, 28–44.Google Scholar
  24. Jonason, P. K., Webster, G. D., Schmitt, D. P., Li, N. P., & Crysel, L. (2012). The antihero in popular culture: life history theory and the dark triad personality traits. Review of General Psychology, 16, 192–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones, D.N. (2016). The nature of Machiavellianism: Distinct patterns of misbehavior. In V. Zeigler-Hill & D.K. Marcus (Eds.), The dark side of personality: Science and practice in social, personality, and clinical psychology. (pp. 87-107). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  26. Jones, D. N., & Figueredo, A. J. (2013). The core of darkness: uncovering the heart of the Dark Triad. European Journal of Personality, 27, 521–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jones, D. N., & Olderbak, S. G. (2014). The associations among dark personalities and sexual tactics across different scenarios. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29, 1050–1070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Jones, D.N., & Paulhus, D.L. (2014). Introducing the Short Dark Triad (SD3): A brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21, 28–41.Google Scholar
  29. Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2009). Machiavellianism. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 102–120). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  30. Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2011). The Dark Triad and impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 670–682.Google Scholar
  31. Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2011a). Differentiating the dark triad within the interpersonal circumplex. In L. M. Horowitz & S. N. Strack (Eds.), Handbook of interpersonal theory and research (pp. 249-267). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  32. Lalumière, M. L., & Quinsey, V. L. (1996). Sexual deviance, antisociality, mating effort, and the use of sexually coercive behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 33–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jones, D.N., & Paulhus, D.L. (2011b). The role of impulsivity in the Dark Triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 670–682.Google Scholar
  34. Lilienfeld, S. O., & Andrews, B. P. (1996). Development and preliminary validation of a self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in noncriminal population. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 488–524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Mack, T. D., Hackney, A. A., & Pyle, M. (2011). The relationship between psychopathic traits and attachment behavior in a non-clinical population. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 584–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maples, J. L., Lamkin, J., & Miller, J. D. (2014). A test of two brief measures of the dark triad: The dirty dozen and short dark triad. Psychological assessment, 26, 326–331.Google Scholar
  37. Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McHoskey, J. W. (2001). Machiavellianism and sexuality: on the moderating role of biological sex. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 779–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mealey, L. (1995). The sociobiology of sociopathy: an integrated evolutionary model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 523–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Miller, J. D., Hyatt, C. S., Maples‐Keller, J. L., Carter, N. T., & Lynam, D. R. (in press). Psychopathy and Machiavellianism: A distinction without a difference?. Journal of personality.Google Scholar
  41. Morf, C. C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: a dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 177–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Newman, J. P. (1987). Reaction to punishment in extraverts and psychopaths: implications for the impulsive behavior of disinhibited individuals. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 464–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Paolacci, G., Chandler, J., & Ipeirotis, P. G. (2010). Running experiments on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Judgement and Decision Making, 5, 411–419.Google Scholar
  44. Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of research in personality, 36, 556–563.Google Scholar
  45. Paulhus, D.L., Neumann, C.S., & Hare, R.D. (in press). Manual for the Self-report Psychopathy Scale. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  46. Penke, L., & Asendorpf, J. B. (2008). Beyond global sociosexual orientations: a more differentiated look at sociosexuality and its effects on courtship and romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Raskin, R., & Hall, C. S. (1979). A narcissistic personality inventory. Psychological Reports, 45, 590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Reise, S. P., & Wright, T. M. (1996). Personality traits, cluster B personality disorders, and sociosexuality. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 128–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling.Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1–36.Google Scholar
  50. Rowe, D. C., Vazsonyi, A. T., & Figueredo, A. J. (1997). Mating-effort in adolescence: a conditional or alternative strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Seto, M. C., Lalumière, M. L., & Quinsey, V. L. (1995). Sensation seeking and males’ sexual strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 669–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Simpson, J. A., Wilson, C. L. & Winterheld, H. A. (2004) Sociosexuality and romantic relationships. In: The handbook of sexuality in close relationships, ed. J. H. Harvey, A. Wenzel & S. Sprecher. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  53. Vasilenko, S. A., Lefkowitz, E. S., & Maggs, J. L. (2012). Short-term positive and negative consequences of sex based on daily reports among college students. Journal of Sex Research, 49, 558–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. von Hippel, W., & Trivers, R. (2011). The evolution and psychology of self-deception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 34, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Webster, G. D., & Bryan, A. (2007). Sociosexual attitudes and behaviors: Why two factors are better than one. Journal of Research in Personality,41, 917–922. Google Scholar
  56. Williams, K. M., Paulhus, D. L., & Hare, R. D. (2007). Capturing the four-factor structure of psychopathy in college students via self-report. Journal of personality assessment, 88, 205–219.Google Scholar
  57. Wilson, D. S., Near, D., & Miller, R. R. (1996). Machiavellianism: a synthesis of the evolutionary and psychological literatures. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 285–299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Texas, El PasoEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations