Current Stem Cell Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 101–108 | Cite as

Endothelial Stem and Progenitor Cells for Regenerative Medicine

  • Kimihiko BannoEmail author
  • Mervin C. YoderEmail author
Stem Cell Switches and Regulators (K Hirschi, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Stem Cell Switches and Regulators


Purpose of Review

Vascular endothelial stem cell (VESC) and progenitor cell are emerging as local resident regulators of vascular endothelial repair and replacement in mammalian subjects. However, widely recognized and accepted standard measures of stem cell function have yet to be published and, thus, we summarize some recent evidence that VESCs demonstrate stem cell properties in the process of endothelial cell (EC) lineage emergence, repair, and regeneration.

Recent Findings

Some rare resident ECs have been identified that are quiescent and reside within blood vessels but are activated and proliferate in response to injury. Transcriptome analyses of these ECs at a single cell level are providing new insights into VESC identity, including tissue specific EC heterogeneity.


Blood vessels and circulating blood contain rare immature ECs that display stem cell potential. Continuous efforts to define their precise location, origin, surface marker, and molecular signatures would enhance current approaches for purification of cells that would enable us to build new vessels for regenerative medicine.


Vascular endothelial stem cell (VESC) Endothelial colony-forming cell (ECFC) Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Kimihiko Banno and Mervin C. Yoder each declare no potential conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

This article is a review and does not contain any unpublished studies with human or animal subjects. All of the published works referenced contain notation on proper conduct of animal or human subjects from their institutions.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cellular & Integrative PhysiologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Indiana Center for Regenerative Medicine and EngineeringIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

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