Mini Review: Application of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Gene and Stem Cells Therapy Era
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Purpose of Review
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have abilities of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. MSCs can evade immune rejection following allogeneic transplantation setting due to their downregulation of HLA Class II antigen. Therefore, we review the current understanding of using MSCs or MSC-conditioned media as treatment for various diseases.
(1) MSCs regulate the balance of Th17/Treg cells in autoimmune disease models, which is associated with complex interactions among different pro- or anti-inflammation cytokines. (2) With the nature of MSCs migrating to multiple tissues under various homing signals, we also found MSCs are widely used as cell vehicles for gene or chemokine delivery.
MSCs or MSC-conditioned media therapies have been explored with advanced techniques. However, it still requires further investigations on (1) how MSCs respond to various microenvironments and (2) how to isolate, purify and expand enough MSCs ex vivo.
KeywordsMesenchymal stem cells Cell therapy Autoimmune Paracrine Genetic modification Delivery tool
Many thanks to Dr. Hang Liu, Dr. Amy Bun Tsoi and Dr. Chong Gao for the assistance with the revisions. Works are supported by the donation from Providence Foundation Limited, Hong Kong.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Ruixia Deng, Anna Hing Yee Law, Jiangang Shen and Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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