Preservation Strategies that Support the Scale-up and Automation of Tissue Biomanufacturing
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Purpose of Review
Tissue engineering strategies to repair or replace tissues and organs that have been damaged by disease, trauma, or congenital issues usually require many weeks of production during which time patients are incapacitated or reliant on temporary devices. In order to fully meet the rising clinical demand of transplantable tissues/organs, various preservation technologies need to be implemented to create “off-the-shelf” availability of biological components and products. This review will focus on the preservation methods used for biological resources (cells, growth factors, and biological scaffolds) and also for the finished tissue-engineered constructs.
Recent studies have demonstrated that conventional cryopreservation and vitrification preservation methods can maintain functionality and properties of cells and cell-seeded scaffolds during long-term storage. Lyophilization can also be used as an alternative strategy for engineered tissues that are devoid of cells. Additionally, fabrication technologies combined with freezing/thawing processes will likely emerge as the preferred strategy to better control the physical and biological properties of engineered tissues while simultaneously providing a shelf life for the product.
The development of preservation methodologies for tissue engineering would minimize the shortage of tissues/organs and offer an effective and commercialized strategy for improved automation of tissue biomanufacturing.
KeywordsCryopreservation CPA Dry preservation Tissue engineering Scaffolds Biomanufacturing
This work was supported in part by grant #5RO1GM101796 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to GDE.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Shangping Wang and Gloria D. Elliott declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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