Treatment Options for Pulmonary Atresia/VSD/MAPCAs

  • Neil CambroneroEmail author
  • Naveen Swami
  • Peter Kouretas
  • V Mohan Reddy
Cardiology/CT Surgery (K Gist, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cardiology/CT Surgery


Purpose of review

This review provides an up to date overview of the treatment options for newborns with pulmonary atresia/VSD/MAPCAs.

It answers the question of how best to diagnose and formulate a surgical plan for this diverse and heterogeneous patient population.

Recent findings

The surgical repair of patients with pulmonary atresia/VSD/MAPCAs can be performed safely with excellent results as a single stage procedure and in the neonatal period in specific circumstances.


Pulmonary atresia/VSD/MAPCAs is a complex and varied lesion. Its clinical presentation and management vary between patients and is mainly dictated by the anatomic characteristics of the major aortopulmonary collaterals which constitute the extracardiac sources of pulmonary blood flow. A rigorous evaluation of the patient’s anatomy is mandatory. Precise surgical planning is a prerequisite and exact surgical execution is required for a successful patient outcome.


Pulmonary atresia MAPCAs Major aortopulmonary collaterals Unifocalization 



Thank you to the UCSF and Stanford groups for their dedicated and exhaustive efforts leading the effort in the management of patients with pulmonary atresia/VSD/MAPCAs.

Financial support and sponsorship

This work was self-funded and non-sponsored.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neil Cambronero
    • 1
    Email author
  • Naveen Swami
    • 1
  • Peter Kouretas
    • 1
  • V Mohan Reddy
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Cardiothoracic SurgeryUniversity of California at San FranciscoCaliforniaUSA

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