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New and Emerging Infections: a Select Review of Evolving Pathogens

  • Hanan HaydarEmail author
  • Ethan Leonard
  • Ankita Desai
Disaster Medicine (M Anderson and M Dingeldein, Section Editors)
  • 8 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Disaster Medicine

Abstract

Purpose of review

Emerging infections are diseases that are either newly discovered in a population or previously known but increasing in incidence. We have chosen to review a few emerging infections that are most notable at this time with new treatment options. We separated them into three categories: viruses, bacteria, and fungi.

Recent findings

Among emerging viral pathogens, we focused on Ebola virus where we have a monoclonal antibody that has been shown safe for treatment in adults, and promising vaccine candidates. Zika virus is also reviewed, although care focuses on symptomatic treatment, we now have several vaccines under development for prevention. Bacterial pathogens of concern are gram-negative bacteria with multidrug resistance. Current treatment options include: use of β-lactamase inhibitors, use of combination therapy, and use of novel non-antibiotic therapies. Lastly, Candida auris is a newly identified Candida species that can be highly resistant to routine antifungal therapy. A new agent, SCY-078, has shown growth inhibition and also antibiofilm activity against C. auris.

Summary

In conclusion, while we have chosen to review only a few emerging infections, there are many others circulating and newer pathogens will arise. We need to develop, evaluate, and disseminate novel tools to identify and treat new and current emerging infections.

Keywords

Emerging infections Current treatment options Zika virus Ebola virus Multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens Candida auris 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Hanan Haydar declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ethan Leonard declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ankita Desai declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References and Recommended Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Infectious DiseasesUniversity Hospitals Rainbow Babies and Children’s HospitalClevelandUSA

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