Annals of Data Science

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 179–191 | Cite as

Intelligence Quotient and Intelligence Grade of Artificial Intelligence

  • Feng Liu
  • Yong Shi
  • Ying Liu


Although artificial intelligence (AI) is currently one of the most interesting areas in scientific research, the potential threats posed by emerging AI systems remain a source of persistent controversy. To address the issue of AI threat,this study proposes a “standard intelligence model” that unifies AI and human characteristics in terms of four aspects of knowledge, i.e., input, output, mastery, and creation. Using this model, we observe three challenges, namely, expanding of the von Neumann architecture; testing and ranking the intelligence quotient (IQ) of naturally and artificially intelligent systems, including humans, Google, Microsoft’s Bing, Baidu, and Siri; and finally, the dividing of artificially intelligent systems into seven grades from robots to Google Brain. Based on this, we conclude that Google’s AlphaGo belongs to the third grade.


Standard intelligence model Intelligence quotient of artificial intelligence Intelligence grades 



This work has been partially supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91546201, No. 71331005).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center on Fictitious Economy and Data ScienceThe Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.The Key Laboratory of Big Data Mining and Knowledge ManagementChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Information Science and TechnologyUniversity of Nebraska at OmahaOmahaUSA
  4. 4.School of Economics and ManagementUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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