The Self-Perceived Health-Care Needs of Patients with Bipolar Disorder in Nigeria

  • Oluyomi EsanEmail author
  • Adeyinka Medubi
Original Article


Few studies have examined the health-care needs of patients with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to comprehensively assess the clinical and social needs of patients with bipolar disorder in Nigeria and to study the demographic and clinical correlates of such needs. This was a cross-sectional study. Consecutive and consenting out-patients with bipolar disorder (n = 100), were assessed with the Camberwell Assessment of Needs-Short Appraisal Schedule, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Shortened Version (ISEL-12), the World Health Organization Quality of life-BREF and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). The most frequently rated areas of total needs as well as unmet needs were in the domain of sexual expression, intimate relationships and the need for company. The mean number of total needs per participant was 10.70 while the median number of unmet needs was 1.50. The total number of unmet needs was significantly higher for unremitted participants compared to remitted participants. The total number of unmet needs was positively correlated with the severity of manic symptoms (YMRS score) and negatively correlated with the level of social relationships (social domain of WHOQOL), functioning (Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score) and social support (Tangible Support subscale of the ISEL). The GAF score and YMRS score significantly predicted unmet needs. The study underscores the importance of assessing the needs of patients with bipolar disorder in Nigeria.


Bipolar disorder Camberwell Assessment of Needs-Short Appraisal Schedule (CANSAS) Needs Outcome Nigeria 


Author Contributions

Oluyomi Esan: Conception, design, acquisition of data, analysis of data; drafting the article, revising it critically for important intellectual content. Adeyinka Medubi: Conception, design; drafting the article, revising it critically for important intellectual content.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Availability of Data and Materials

Raw data and complete patient documentation are available from the author Oluyomi Esan (e-mail upon request.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature India Private Limited 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria

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