Derived Relational Responding and Intelligence: Assessing the Relationship Between the PEAK-E Pre-assessment and IQ with Individuals with Autism and Related Disabilities
The present study evaluated the relationship between derived relational responding demonstrated by 64 individuals with developmental or intellectual disabilities (90.63% of which had an autism diagnosis) and their corresponding performance on standardized IQ assessments. Participants’ relational abilities were assessed using the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Equivalence Pre-Assessment (PEAK-E-PA), and IQ was assessed using either the WISC-IV Short Form assessment or the WPPSI-III Short Form assessment. The data indicated a strong, significant correlation between participant scores on the PEAK-E-PA and IQ both in terms of raw IQ (r = .843, p < .01), as well as full scale IQ (r = .804, p < .01), which is further analyzed in terms of each of the four subtests of the PEAK-E-PA (reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity, and equivalence). The obtained results have implications for a behavior analytic understanding of factors that relate to the development of intelligent behavior in individuals with disabilities.
KeywordsAutism Intelligence Relational frame theory Stimulus equivalence
We would like to acknowledge the contributions of Allison Ribley, Maureen O’Connor, and Jomi Hirata for their contributions and time dedicated to collecting the data presented in the current study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Mark R. Dixon receives small royalties from the sales of the PEAK curriculum. All remaining authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional and/or National Research Committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants, guardians, and/or agencies who were included in the study.
- Dixon, M. R. (2014a). PEAK relational training system: Direct training module. Carbondale: Shawnee Scientific Press.Google Scholar
- Dixon, M. R. (2014b). PEAK relational training system: Generalization module. Carbondale: Shawnee Scientific Press.Google Scholar
- Dixon, M. R. (2015). PEAK relational training system: Equivalence module. Carbondale: Shawnee Scientific Press.Google Scholar
- Dixon, M. R., Belisle, J., Rowsey, K. E., Speelman, R. C., Stanley, C. R., & Kime, D. (2017). Evaluating emergent naming relations through representational drawing with individuals with developmental disabilities using the PEAK-E curriculum. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 17, 92–97. https://doi.org/10.1037/bar0000055.Google Scholar
- Dixon, M. R., Belisle, J., Stanley, C. R., Speelman, R. C., Rowsey, K. E., Kime, D., & Daar, J. H. (2016a). Establishing derived variable categorical responding in children with disabilities using the PEAK-E curriculum. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 50, 134–145. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dixon, M. R., Belisle, J., Stanley, C., Daar, J. H. & Williams, L. A. (2016b). Derived equivalence relations of geometry skills in students with autism: An application of the PEAK-E curriculum. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 32, 38–45. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40616-016-0051-9.
- Dixon, M. R., Belisle, J., Whiting, S. W., & Rowsey, K. E. (2014a). Normative sample of the PEAK relational training system: Direct training module and subsequent comparisons to individuals with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8, 1597–1606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.07.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gore, N. G., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Murphy, G. (2010). The relationship between intellectual functioning and relational perspective-taking. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 10, 1–17.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (2001). Relational frame theory: A post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
- O'Toole, C., Barnes-Holmes, D., Murphy, C., O'Connor, J., & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2009). Relational flexibility and human intelligence: Extending the remit of Skinner’s verbal behavior. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 9, 1–17.Google Scholar
- Partington, J. (2006). Assessment of basic language and learning skills-revised (the ABLLS-R). Pleasant Hill: Behavior Analysts.Google Scholar
- Reed, P., Osborne, L., & Corness, M. (2005). The effectiveness of early intervention programmes for autistic spectrum disorders. A report for the South East Regional Special Educational Need Partnership. Research Partners: Bexley, Brighton & Hove, East Sussex, Kent, Midway, Surrey, West Sussex.Google Scholar
- Sattler, J. M., & Dumont, R. (2004). Assessment of children: WISC-IV and WPPSI-III supplement. San Diego, CA: Sattler Publisher, Inc..Google Scholar
- Schlinger, H. D. (2003). The myth of intelligence. The Psychological Record, 53, 15–32.Google Scholar
- Sidman, M. (1994). Stimulus equivalence: A research story. Boston: Authors Cooperative.Google Scholar
- Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
- Spearman, C. (1904). “General Intelligence,” objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 238–249.Google Scholar
- Sternberg, R. J., & Detterman, D. R. (1986). What is intelligence? Contemporary viewpoints on its nature and definition. Norwood: Ablex.Google Scholar
- Sundberg, M. L. (2008). VB-MAPP: Verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program. Concord: AVB Press.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: Third Edition (WAIS-III) [Assessment instrument]. San Antonio: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (2002). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of intelligence: Third Edition (WPPSI-III) [Assessment instrument]. San Antonio: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (2003). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) [Assessment instrument]. San Antonio: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (2014). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Fifth Edition (WISC-IV) [Assessment instrument]. San Antonio: Pearson.Google Scholar