Advertisement

Estimation of Internal Loading of Phosphorus in Freshwater Wetlands

  • Hari K. PantEmail author
Water Pollution (G Toor and L Nghiem, Section Editors)
  • 30 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Water Pollution
  2. Topical Collection on Water Pollution

Abstract

Purpose of the Review

Freshwater wetlands are found in various climatic zones ranging from tropics to tundra, and their roles from groundwater recharge and flood control to water quality management and biodiversity protection are well recognized. Phosphorus (P) is a limiting nutrient for algal growth in freshwater systems, including wetlands. Various physico-chemical and biological characteristics of wetlands regulate cycles of nutrients such as P. Thus, estimating internal loading of P in wetlands would be crucial in the formulation of effective P management strategies in the wetland systems. This review and limnological data presented may offer needed knowledge/evidence for the effective control of P inputs in wetlands and provide insights on possible ways for interventions in controlling eutrophication and saving the ecosystem from collapse.

Recent Findings

Various ways of P losses such as agriculture, urbanization, etc., to the water bodies have severely impacted water quality of wetlands by altering physical and chemical nature of the P compounds and release bound P to the water columns. Studies indicate that P sorption–desorption dynamic, mineralization, and enzymatic hydrolysis of P in freshwater wetlands’ soils/sediments are crucial in causing internal loading or sink of P in wetland systems. Thus, extensive studies on abovementioned arenas are crucial to restore natural freshwater wetlands or to increase the efficiency of constructed wetlands in retaining P.

Summary

In general, researchers have elucidated significant amounts of limnological data to understand eutrophication processes in freshwater wetlands; however, studies on the interactions of P stability and hydro-climatic changes are not well understood. Such changes could significantly influence localized limnology/microenvironments and exacerbate internal P loading in freshwater wetlands; thus, studies in such direction deserve the attention of scientific communities.

Keywords

Phosphorus Internal loading Wetlands Sorption Mineralization Enzymatic hydrolysis 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Hudon C, Jean M, Letourneau G. Temporal (1970–2016) changes in human pressures and wetland response in the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada). Sci Total Environ. 2018;2018(643):1137–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Worsfold P, McKelvie I, Monbet P. Determination of phosphorus in natural waters: a historical review. Anal Chim Acta. 2016;918:8–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.02.047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aldous A, McCormick P, Ferguson C, Graham S, Craft C. Hydrologic regime controls soil phosphorus fluxes in restoration and undisturbed wetlands. Resoration Ecol. 2005;13:341–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li H, Chi Z, Li J, Wu H, Yan B. Bacterial community structure and function in soils from tidal freshwater wetlands in a Chinese delta: potential impacts of salinity and nutrient. Sci Total Environ. 2019;696:134029.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marton JM, Creed IF, Lewis DB, Lane CR, Basu NB, Cohen MJ, et al. Geographically isolated wetlands are important biogeochemical reactors on the landscape. BioSci. 2015;65:408–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zou Y, Lu X, Jiang M. Dynamics of dissolved iron under pedohydrological regime caused by pulsed rainfall events in wetland soils. Geoderma. 2009;150:46–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schindler DW. Evolution of phosphorus in lakes. Science. 1977;195:260–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pant HK, Reddy KR, Dierberg FE. Bioavailability of organic phosphorus in a submerged aquatic vegetation-dominated treatment wetland. J Environ Qual. 2002;31:1748–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harrison PG, Mann KH. Detritus formation from eelgrass (Zostera marina L.): the relative effects of fragmentation, leaching, and decay. Limnol Oceanogr. 1975;20:924–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gachter R, Meyer JS. The role of microorganisms in mobilization and fixation of phosphorus in sediments. Hydrobiologia. 1993;253:103–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pant HK, Reddy KR. Potential internal loading of phosphorus in a wetland constructed in agricultural land. Water Res. 2003;37(5):965–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00474-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Garcia-Avila F, Patino-Chave J, Zhinin-Chimbo F, Donoso-Moscoso S, del Pino LF, Aviles-Anazco A. Performance of Phragmites australis and Cyperus papyrus in the treatment of municipal wastewater by vertical flow subsurface constructed wetlands. Intl Soil Water Conserv Res. 2019;7(3):286–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2019.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Froelich PN. Kinetic control of dissolved phosphate in natural rivers and estuaries: a primer on the phosphate buffer mechanism. Limnol Oceanogr. 1988;33:649–68.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Caraco N, Cole JJ, Likens GE. A cross-system study of phosphorus release from lake sediments. In: Comparative analysis of ecosystems. New York, NY: Springer Verlag; 1991. p. 241–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pant HK, Reddy KR. Phosphorus sorption characteristics of estuarine sediments under different redox conditions. J Environ Qual. 2001;30:1474–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gupta AD, Sarkar S, Ghosh P, Saha T, Sil AK. Phosphorous dynamics of the aquatic system constitutes an important axis for waste water purification in natural treatment pond(s) in East Kolkata Wetlands. Ecol Eng. 2016;90:63–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.01.056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oldenborg KA, Steinman AD. Impact of sediment dredging on sediment phosphorus flux in a restored riparian wetland. Sci Total Environ. 2019;650(2):1969–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Geranmayeh P, Johannesson KM, Ulen B, Tonderski KS. Particle deposition, resuspension and phosphorus accumulation in small constructed wetlands. Ambio. 2018;47:134–45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-017-0992-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Song K. Perpetual phosphorus cycling: eutrophication amplifies biological control on internal phosphorus loading in agricultural reservoirs. Ecosystems. 2017;20:1483–93.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0126-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mitsch WJ, Zhang L, Marois D, Song K. Protecting the Florida Everglades wetlands with wetlands: can stormwater phosphorus be reduced to oligotrophic conditions? Ecol Eng. 2015;80:8–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.10.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haque A, Ali G, Macrae M, Badiou P, Lobb D. Hydroclimatic influences and physiographic controls on phosphorus dynamics in prairie pothole wetlands. Sci Total Environ. 2018;645:1410–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mendes LRD, Tonderski K, Vangsolvrsen B, Kjaergaard C. Phosphorus retention in surface-flow constructed wetlands targeting agricultural drainage water. Ecol Eng. 2018;120:94–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.05.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    •• Badiou P, Page B, Akinremi W. Phosphorus retention in intact and drained prairie wetland basins: implications for nutrient export. J Environ Qual. 2018;47:902–13. This article explores the important aspects of P dynamic in wetlands, the role of wetland drainage on non-point P pollution and chemical characteristics, including P sorption parameters of drained wetlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    •• Cui H, Ou Y, Wang L, Wu H, Yan B, Li Y. Distribution and release of phosphorus fractions associated with soil aggregate structure in restored wetlands. Chemosphere. 2019;223:319–29. The authors evaluate the roles of P release risk of wetlands that are restored varying numbers of years, hence providing valuable insights.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lal, R. 2003. Testimony of concerning soil carbon sequestration by agricultural and forestry land uses to mitigate climate change for a hearing on the potential of agricultural sequestration to address climate change to Committee on Environment and Public Works 406 Dirksen Senate Bulding, Washington, D.C. July 8, 2003.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Servais S, Kominoski JS, Charles SP, Gaiser EE, Mazzei V, Troxler TG, et al. Saltwater intrusion and soil carbon loss: testing effects of salinity and phosphorus loading on microbial functions in experimental freshwater wetlands. Geoderma. 2019;337:1291–300.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.11.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang W, Jin X, Meng X, Tang W, Shan B. Phosphorus transformations at the sediment–water interface in shallow freshwater ecosystems caused by decomposition of plant debris. Chemosphere. 2018;201:328–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.03.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang J, Pant HK. Identification of organic phosphorus compounds in the Bronx River bed sediments by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;171(1–4):309–19.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1280-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang J, Pant HK. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus in river bed sediments. Ecol Eng. 2010;36:963–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang J, Pant HK. Phosphorus sorption characteristics of the Bronx River bed sediments. Chemical Speciation Bioavailability. 2010b;22(3):171–81.  https://doi.org/10.3184/095422910X12827492153851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Benner RM, Moran MA, Hodson RE. Effects of pH and plant source on lignocellulose biodegradation rate in two wetland ecosystems, the Okeefenokee Swamp and a Georgia salt marsh. Limnol Oceanogr. 1985;30:489–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boulton AJ, Boon PI. A review of methodology used to measure leaf litter decomposition in lotic environments: time to turn over an old leaf. Aust J Mar Freshwat Res. 1991;42:1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cunningham HW, Wetzel RG. Kinetic analysis of protein degradation by a freshwater wetland sediment community. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989;56:1963–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Linkins AE, Sinsabaugh RL, McClaugherty CA, Melills JM. Cellulase activity on decomposing leaf litter in microcosms. Plant Soil. 1990;123:17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Oremland RS. Biogeochemistry of methanogenic bacteria. In: Zehnder AJB, editor. Biology of anaerobic microorganisms. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1988. p. 641–707.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kerner M. Coupling of microbial fermentation and respiration processes in an intertidal mudflat of the Elbe estuary. Limnol Oceanogr. 1993;38:314–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Morse JL, Megonigal JP, Walbridge MR. Sediment nutrient accumulation and nutrient availability in two tidal freshwater marshes along the Mattaponi River, Virginia. USA Biogeochem. 2004;69:175–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    • Zhu J, Qu B, Li M. Phosphorus mobilization in the Yeyahu wetland: phosphatase enzyme activities and organic phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere soils. Intl Biodeterioration Biodegradation. 2017;124:304–13. This paper discusses the role of phosphatases on P cycling in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of wetlands, highlighting the role of P hydrolyzing enzymes in P mobilization.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leff LG. Fresh water habitats. In: Schaechter M, editor. Encyclopedia of microbiology, Reference module in life sciences. 4th ed: Elsevier; 2019. p. 300–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.90678-2.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gao J, Fen J, Zhang X, Yu F, Xu X, Kuzyakov K. Drying-rewetting cycles alter carbon and nitrogen mineralization in litter-amended alpine wetland soil. Catena. 2016;145:285–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.06.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pant HK, Reddy KR. Hydrologic influence on stability of organic phosphorus in wetland detritus. J Environ Qual. 2001;30:668–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    •• Huang L, Hu W, Tao J, Liu Y, Kong Z, Wu L. Soil bacterial community structure and extracellular enzyme activities under different land use types in a long-term reclaimed wetland. J Soil Sed. 2019;19(5):2543–57. Investigations of shift in bacterial community structure and soil enzyme activities during long-term reclamation of freshwater wetlands in this study provide useful data in the field.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-019-02262-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bergkemper F, Scholer A, Engel M, Lang F, Kruger J, Schloter M, et al. Phosphorus depletion in forest soils shapes bacterial communities towards phosphorus recycling systems. Environ Microbiol. 2016;18(6):1988–2000.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Subashchandrabose RS, Ramakrishnan B, Mallavarapu M, Venkateswarlu K, Naidu R. Consortia of cyanobacteria/microalgae and bacteria: biotechnological potential. Biotechnol Advances. 2011;29(6):896–907.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.07.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Spohn M, Kuzyakov Y. Phosphorus mineralization can be driven by microbial need for carbon. Soil Biol Bio Chem. 2013;61:69–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.02.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Teng Z, Zhu Y, Lim M, Whelan MJ. Microbial community composition and activity controls phosphorus transformation in rhizosphere soils of the Yeyahu Wetland in Beijing. China Sci Total Environ. 2018;628-629:1266–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Branon CA, Sommers LE. Stability and mineralization of organic phosphorus incorporated into model humic polymers. Soil Biol Biochem. 1985;17:221–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stewart JWB, Tiessen H. Dynamics of soil organic phosphorus. Biogeochem. 1987;4:41–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lee C. Controls on organic-carbon preservation- the use of stratified water bodies to compare intrinsic rates of decomposition in oxic and anoxic systems. Geochim Cosmochim Acta. 1992;56:3323–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sun MY, Lee C, Aller RC. Anoxic and oxic degradation of C-14-labeled chloropigments and a C-14-labeled diatom in Long-Island Sound sediments. Limnol Oceanogr. 1993;57:147–57.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hedley MJ, White RE, Nye PH. Plant induced changes in the rhizosphere of rape (Brassica napus Var. emerald) seedlings. III. Changes in L value, soil phosphate fractions and phosphatase activity. New Phytol. 1982;91:45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cross AF, Schlesinger WH. A literature review and evaluation of the Hedley fractionation: applications to the biogeochemical cycle of soil phosphorus in natural ecosystems. Geoderma. 1995;64:197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Keyhani NO, Roseman S. Physiological aspects of chitin catabolism in marine bacteria. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-General Subjects. 1997;1473:108–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Freeman C, Nevison GB, Hughes S, Reynolds B, Hudson J. Enzymic involvement in the biogeochemical response of a welsh peatland to a rainfall enhancement manipulation. Biol Fertil Soils. 1998;27:173–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grossart HP, Berman T, Simon M, Pohlmann K. Occurrence and microbial dynamics of macroscopic organic aggregates (Lake Snow) in Lake Kinneret, Israel, in fall. Aquat Microbial Ecol. 1998;14:59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pflugmacher S, Spangenberg M, Steinberg CEW. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and effects on the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum in relation to photosynthesis, pigment pattern and activity of detoxication. J Appl Botany-Angewandte Botanik. 1999;73:184–90.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    • Konopka A. Ecology microbial. In: Schaechter M, editor. Encyclopedia of microbiology, Reference module in life sciences. 4th ed: Elsevier; 2019. p. 97–111. This paper provides knowledge, gathered from various studies, on how microbes interact with their environments, and discusses their importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts, hence providing synthesis of the knowledge in the field.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.90675-7.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Canfield TJ, Kemble NE, Brumbaugh WG, Dwyer FJ, Ingersoll CG, Fairchild JF. Use of benthic invertebrate community structure and the sediment quality triad to evaluate metal-contaminated sediment in the upper Clark-Fork River. Montana Environ Toxicol Chem. 1994;13:1999–2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pant HK. A preliminary study on estimating extra-cellular nitrate reductase activities in estuarine systems. Knowl Manag Aquat Ecosyst. 2009;392:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2009011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jorgensen BB, Bak F. Pathways and microbiology of thiosulfate transformations and sulfate reduction in marine sediments (Kattegat, Denmark). Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991;57:847–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kristensen E, Ahmed SI, Devol AH. Aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in marine sediment: which is fast? Limnol Oceanogr. 1995;40:1430–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Feng W, Wu F, He Z, Song F, Zho Y, Giesy JP, et al. Simulated bioavailability of phosphorus from aquatic macrophytes and phytoplankton by aqueous suspension and incubation with alkaline phosphatase. Sci Total Environ. 2018;616–617:1431–9. Get rights and content.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Greenwood AJ, Lewis DB. Phosphatases and the utilization of inositol hexaphosphate by soil yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus. Soil Biol Biochem. 1977;9:161–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Juma NG, Tabatabai MA. Distribution of phosphomonoesterases in soils. Soil Sci. 1977;126:101–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hino S. Characterization of orthophosphate release from dissolved organic phosphorus by gel filtration and several hydrolytic enzymes. Hydrobiologia. 1989;174:49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pant HK, Warman PR. Enzymatic hydrolysis of soil organic phosphorus by immobilized phosphatases. Biol Fertil Soils. 2000;30:306–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Treseder KK, Vitousek PM. Effects of soil nutrient availability on investment in acquisition of N and P in Hawaiian rain forests. Ecology. 2001;82:946–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Anderson OR. Evidence for coupling of the carbon and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles in freshwater microbial communities. Front Mar Sci. 2018;5:20.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tarafdar JC, Junk A. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and its relation to the depletion of soil organic phosphorus. Biol Fertil Soils. 1987;3:199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Beck E, FuBeder A, Karus M. The maize root system in situ: evaluation of structure and capability of utilization of phytate and inorganic soil phosphates. Pflanzenerna hurung Bodenk-de. 1989;152:152–67.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pant HK, Edwards AC, Vaughan D. Extraction, molecular fractionation and enzyme degradation of organically associated phosphorus in soil solutions. Biol Fertil Soils. 1994;17:196–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pant HK, Vaughan D, Edwards AC. Molecular size distribution and enzymatic degradation of organic phosphorus in root exudates of spring barley. Biol Fertil Soils. 1994;18:285–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Smyth DA, Chevalier P. Increases in phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities in wheat seedlings in response to phosphorus deficient growth. J Plant Nutr. 1984;7:1221–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Leprince F, Quiquampoix H. Extracellular enzyme activity in soil: effect of pH and ionic strength on the interaction with montmorillonite of two acid phosphatases secreted by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum. European J Soil Sci. 1996;47:511–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fujita K, Miyabara Y, Kunito T. Microbial biomass and ecoenzymatic stoichiometries vary in response to nutrient availability in an arable soil. Euro J Soil Biol. 2019;91:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2018.12.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Healey FP. Characteristics of phosphorus deficiency in Anabaena. J. Phycol. 9:383–94.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pettersson K. Alkaline phosphatase activity and algal surplus phosphorus as phosphorus-deficiency indicators in Lake Erken. Arch Hydrobiol. 1980;89:54–87.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pettersson K. The availability of phosphorus and the species composition of the spring phytoplankton in Lake Erken. Int Revue Ges Hydrobiol. 1985;70:527–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jansson M, Olsson H, Pettersson K. Phosphatases; origin, characteristics and function in lakes. Hydrobiologia. 1988;170:157–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Burns RG. Interactions of enzymes with soil mineral and organic colloids. In: Huang PM, Schnitzer M, editors. Interactions of soil minerals with natural organics and microbes, vol. 17. Madison, WI: Special Pub Soil Sci Soc Am Inc; 1986. p. 423–7.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Boyd SA, Mortland MM. Enzyme interactions with clays and clay-organic matter complexes. In: Bollag JM, Stotzky G, editors. Soil biochemistry, vol. 6. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 1990. p. 1–28.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Huang S, Pant HK. Nitrogen transformation in wetlands and marshes. J Food, Agric Environ. 2009;7:946–54.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pant HK, Rechcigl JE, Adjei MB. Carbon sequestration in wetlands: concept and estimation. J Food Agric Environ. 2003;1:308–13.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Audet J, Zak D, Bidstrup J, Hoffman CC. Nitrogen and phosphorus retention in Danish restored wetlands. Ambio. 2019;49:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01181-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth, Environmental, and Geospatial Sciences, Lehman Collegethe City University of New YorkBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations