Removal of Heavy Metals by Polymer Inclusion Membranes

  • Nur Shahira Wahida Zulkefeli
  • Soo Kar Weng
  • Nurul Syazana Abdul Halim
Water Pollution (L Nghiem, Section Editor)
  • 11 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Water Pollution

Abstract

Heavy metals cannot be biodegraded and they remain in the environment until being removed. Thus, the removal of heavy metals from contaminated water is of special concern for the protection of human and aquatic lives. Studies on polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) started more than 50 years ago and have shown outstanding separation performance of metal ions. The potential and capabilities of PIMs have made it more favorable than ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction process. To achieve efficient transport of metal ions, different types of extractant with compatible base polymer have been successfully used along with suitable targeted metal ions. However, selectivity of metal ion is only limited to one type of metal ion based on the extractant used in PIMs. The present review describes the current literature on heavy metal removal using PIMs for the past 3 years. The compatibility of extractant with base polymer and plasticizer is discussed. Most of PIM studies used cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as the base polymer, and only a few studies have used other base polymers. These new base polymers have shown better PIMs in terms of stability and separation performance compared to the CTA- and PVC-based PIMs. Moreover, a new invention of dual PIM separation system has allowed simultaneous separation of multiple metal ions. Such improvement in PIM technology can speed up commercialization process and make it viable for large scale and industrial use especially in hydrometallurgy and wastewater treatment.

Keywords

Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) Heavy metals Liquid membranes Extractant Plasticizer 

Abbreviations

2-NPOE

2-Nitrophenyl octyl ether

2-NPPE

2-Nitrophenyl pentyl ether

ADO

Dioctyl adipate

Aliquat 336

Trioctylmethylammonium chloride

Am

Americium

As

Arsenic

C4DGA

Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene

CAB

Cellulose acetate butyrate

CAP

Cellulose acetate phthalate

Cd

Cadmium

Cr

Chromium

CTA

Cellulose triacetate

CTB

Cellulose tribenzoate

Cu

Copper

Cyphos 101

Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride

Cyphos 104

Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide

Cyphos 167

Tributyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride

D2EHPA

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

DOP

Dioctyl phthalate

DOTP

Dioctyl terephthalate

Fe

Iron

FeCl

Iron chloride

HCl

Hydrochloric

HNO3

Nitric acid

ISEs

Ion selective electrodes

LIX84I

2-Hydroxy-5-nonylacetopnone oxime

Mg

Magnesium

Mn

Manganese

NaNO3

Sodium nitrate

Ni

Nickel

NPOE

Nitrophenyl octyl ether

NPPE

Nitrophenyl phentyl ether

ONPOE

1-Nitro-2-octoxybenzene

ONPPE

o-Nitrophenyl pentyl ether

Pb

Lead

PIMs

Polymer inclusion membranes

Pu

Plutonium

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride

PVDF

Polyvinyl difluoride

PVDF-HFP

Oly(vinylidene) fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene

rGO

Reduced graphene oxide

SCN-

Thiocyanate

SLMs

Supported liquid membranes

T2EHDGA

N,N,N′,N′-Tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycolamide

T2EHP

Tri-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

TBEP

Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate

TBEP

Tris-(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate

TDPNO

4-(10-n-tridecyl)pyridine N-oxide

TEHP

Tris-(ethylhexyl) phosphate

Th

Hexanuclear

THF

Tetrahydrofuran

TIOA

Triioctylamine

TOA

Trioctylamine

TODGA

N,N,N′,N′-Tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide

U

Uranium

Zn

Zinc

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the research participants for their time and effort involved with the research.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nur Shahira Wahida Zulkefeli
    • 1
  • Soo Kar Weng
    • 1
  • Nurul Syazana Abdul Halim
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Earth ScienceUniversiti Malaysia KelantanJeliMalaysia

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