Contaminated Wounds: Fresh Water, Salt Water, and Agricultural Contamination
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Purpose of Review
This review focuses on the appropriate management of contaminated wounds sustained in the freshwater, saltwater, and agricultural settings.
While these wounds can be associated with polymicrobial pathogens and infections, Aeromonas spp. and Mycobacterium marinum are commonly seen in fresh water wounds, while Vibrio vulnificus is a common pathogen in saltwater wounds. Each of these organisms can be extremely virulent. Pathogens found in agricultural contamination can vary widely, but can be associated with fungal organism found in the soil. Management of these soft tissue injuries includes early irrigation and debridement, avoiding primary closure, and appropriate antibiotic selection.
This review will highlight the most common pathogens found in contaminated wounds and highlight their virulence and potential for life-threatening systemic illness from wound infections. We also discuss appropriate antibiotic selection for these pathogens and our practices for wound management.
KeywordsSalt water infection Fresh water infection Contaminated wound Aeromonas Vibrio
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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