Biological Treatment of 3,6-Dichloro-2-Methoxybenzoic Acid Using Anaerobic-Aerobic Sequential Batch Reactor

  • Gajanuru Basappa MaheshEmail author
  • Basavaraju Manu
Original Article


A sequential anaerobic-aerobic batch reactor was used to treat 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) during a long operation period of 340 days in the presence of disodium anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate (AQS) as redox mediator. The sludge activity was evaluated for different dosages of dicamba over constant hydraulic retention time (HRT), neutral pH (6.5–7.5) and at ambient reactor temperature. Effects of increased dicamba concentration, solids retention time (SRT) and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) on the biodegradation of dicamba was monitored and compared with control reactor containing no dicamba. Results revealed that long operation period, long SRT and ORP were playing important role in the breakdown of dicamba to its transformation products and subsequent removal in the system. The system was capable of degrading the compound completely during long operation period, long SRT and at low ORP in the presence of AQS. Reducing condition in the anaerobic reactor significantly contributed to the treatment process through demethylation, dehalogenation and dechlorination reactions in the presence of different reducing bacteria. The results of GC-HRMS identified the anaerobic transformation products of dicamba as oleic acid (C18H34O2), 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z), 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester (C21H40O4), trans-13-Ocatadecenoic acid (C18H34O2) compounds which were then oxidised in the aerobic reactor.


Dicamba Biodegradation Anaerobic-aerobic SBR Dehalogenation Redox mediator 



The authors would like to thank MHRD, Government of India, for providing funds through institutional fellowship to carry out the research. We would also thank DST and SAIF, IIT Bombay, India, for providing the GC-HRMS analysis facility.

Supplementary material

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ESM 1 (JPG 220 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology, KarnatakaSurathkalIndia

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