Environmental Processes

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 135–153 | Cite as

Impact of Climate Variability on the Rice Yield in Uttar Pradesh: an Agro-Climatic Zone Based Study

  • Diva Bhatt
  • Geetika Sonkar
  • R. K. MallEmail author
Original Article


In the backdrop of the established fact that the climate and agricultural produce foster a close-knit relation, the present study explores the impacts of climate variability on the rice yields across diverse agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. The time-series non-parametric Mann-Kendall trend test was applied to study long term (both annual and seasonal) weather and yield data sets. Minimum temperature, encompassing all the zones, was found to be increasing within the range of 0.06 to 0.44 °C per decade. The ‘kharif’ season maximum temperature trends were found increasing in most zones. In terms of annual and seasonal rainfall trends, the results were mostly non-significant, except for Bhabhar and Tarai Zone which had witnessed a very high decadal trend indicating towards the occurrences of intense rainfall events. North Eastern Plain Zone needs a special mention owing to its large number of extreme rainfall events in three categories (>50 to <100 mm/day; >100 to <150 mm/day; >150 mm/day). Considering the annual/seasonal temperature and rainfall variability in the region, the warming trend along with spatio-temporally uncertain rainfall is likely to inflict significant impact upon the rice crop. Consequently, there is a dire need to devise strategies capable of dealing with the impacts of the prevailing climate variability on rice yields in this state of India through development of suitable adaptation options for sustainable production. The continuous and rigorous studies into this field of agro-meteorology subjected to impact assessment call for international action plans that are designed in a frame of ‘bottom-up approach’ or a ‘local to regional to country level’ strategic implementation of adaptation options to sustain yields in the rice fields.


Adaptation Agro-climatic zones Climate variability Kharif crop Extreme events 



Authors wish to thank the Climate Change Programme, Department of Science and Technology-New Delhi and University Grants Commission, New Delhi for financial support for this study. The rainfall data used in the study was obtained from the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi that is thankfully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

40710_2019_360_MOESM1_ESM.docx (46 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 45 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DST-Mahamana Center of Excellence in Climatic Change Research, Institute of Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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