Taped Problems Intervention Components: A Meta-Analysis
The taped problems (TP) intervention is a math fact fluency intervention designed to produce high rates of active and accurate academic responding. Multiple single-case design studies have examined the use of TP across grades of students, implementation group sizes, intervention settings, target math facts, total intervention time, application of reinforcement procedures, and inclusion of post-TP exercises as part of the intervention. This meta-analysis examines which TP components are related to greatest increases in math fact fluency. A total of 14 studies with 158 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Results support that TP is an effective intervention to increase math fact fluency, and significant moderators of TP effectiveness include intervention group size, setting, time in seconds in intervention, and the inclusion of reinforcement. Discussion focuses on implications of these findings for research and practice.
KeywordsTaped problems Meta-analysis Intervention Mathematics Single-case design
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of Interest
Kathleen B. Aspiranti declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Elizabeth McCallum declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Ara J. Schmitt declares that he has no conflict of interest.
*Denotes article included in meta-analysis
- *Aspiranti, K. B., Skinner, C. H., McCleary, D. F., & Cihak, D. F. (2011). Using taped-problems and rewards to increase addition-fact fluency in a first grade general education classroom. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 4, 25–33.Google Scholar
- *Bliss, S. L., Skinner, C. H., McCallum, E., Saecker, L. B., Rowland-Bryant, E., & Brown, K. S. (2010). A comparison of taped problems with and without a brief post-treatment assessment on multiplication fluency. Journal of Behavioral Education, 19, 156–168.Google Scholar
- *Carroll, E., Skinner, C. H., Turner, H., McCallum, E., & Woodland, S. (2006). Evaluating and comparing responsiveness to two interventions designed to enhance math-fact fluency. School Psychology Forum: Research in Practice, 1, 1–18.Google Scholar
- Duhon, G. J., Noell, G. H., Witt, J. C., Freeland, J. T., Dufrene, B. A., & Gilbertson, D. N. (2004). Identifying academic skill and performance deficits: the experimental analysis of brief assessments of academic skills. School Psychology Review, 33, 429–443.Google Scholar
- Grafman, J. M., & Cates, G. L. (2010). The differential effects of two self-managed math instruction procedures: cover, copy, and compare versus copy, cover, and compare. Psychology in the Schools, 47, 153–165.Google Scholar
- *McCallum, E., & Schmitt, A. J. (2011). The taped problems intervention: increasing the math fact fluency of a student with an intellectual disability. International Journal of Special Education, 26, 276–284.Google Scholar
- *McCallum, E., Skinner, C. H., & Hutchins, H. (2004). The taped-problems intervention: increasing division fact fluency using a low-tech self-managed time-delay intervention. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 20, 129–147.Google Scholar
- *McCallum, E., Skinner, C. H., Turner, H., & Saecker, L. (2006). The taped-problems intervention: increasing multiplication fact fluency using a low-tech, classwide, time-delay intervention. School Psychology Review, 35, 419–434.Google Scholar
- *McCleary, D. F., Aspiranti, K. B., Skinner, C. H., Foster, L. N., Luna, E., Murray, K., …, Woody, A. (2011). Enhancing math-fact fluency via taped problems in intact second- and fourth-grade classrooms. Journal of Evidence-Based Practices for Schools, 12, 179–201.Google Scholar
- *Miller, L. C., Skinner, C. H., Gibby, L., Galyon, C. E., & Meadows-Allen, S. (2011). Evaluating generalization of addition-fact fluency using the taped-problems procedure in a second-grade classroom. Journal of Behavioral Education, 20, 203–220.Google Scholar
- *Mong, M. D., & Mong, K. W. (2012). The utility of brief experimental analysis and extended intervention analysis in selecting effective mathematics interventions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 21, 99–118.Google Scholar
- National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES). (2015). The nation’s report card: math highlights 2015. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
- National Mathematics Advisory Panel (NMAP). (2008). Foundations for success: the final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2016). PISA 2015 results (volume I): excellence and equity in education. Paris: PISA, OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
- Parker, R. I., Vannest, K. J., & Davis, J. L. (2014). Non-overlap analysis for single case research. In T. R. Kratochwill & J. R. Levin (Eds.), School psychology series. Single-case intervention research: methodological and statistical advances (pp. 127–151). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Parkhurst, J., Skinner, C. H., Yaw, J., Poncy, B., Adcock, W., & Luna, E. (2010). Efficient class-wide remediation: using technology to identify idiosyncratic math facts for additional automaticity drills. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 6, 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- *Poncy, B. C., Skinner, C. H., & Jaspers, K. E. (2007). Evaluating and comparing interventions designed to enhance math fact accuracy and fluency: cover, copy and compare versus taped problems. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16, 27–37.Google Scholar
- *Poncy, B. C., Skinner, C. H., & McCallum, E. (2012). A comparison of class-wide taped problems and Cover, Copy, and Compare for enhancing mathematic fluency. Psychology in the Schools, 49, 744–755.Google Scholar
- *Poncy, B. C., Jaspers, K. E., Hansmann, P. R., Bui, L., & Matthew, W. B. (2015). A comparison of taped-problem interventions to increase math fact fluency: does the length of time delay affect student learning rates? Journal of Applied School Psychology, 31, 63–82.Google Scholar
- Rohatgi, A. (2015). WebPlotDigitizer (version 4.1) [computer software]. Retrieved from https://automeris.io/WebPlotDigitizer/.
- Shapiro, E. S. (2011). Academic skills problems: direct assessment and intervention fourth edition. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Skinner, C. H., & Smith, E. S. (1992). Issues surrounding the use of self-managed interventions for increasing performance. School Psychology Review, 21, 202–210.Google Scholar
- VanDerHeyden, A. (2014). Best practices in cant’ do/won’t do assessments. In P. L. Harrison & A. Thomas (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology: data-based and collaborative decision making (6th ed., pp. 305–316). Bethesda: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
- Vannest, K. J., Parker, R. I., & Gonen, O. (2011). Single case research: web based calculators for SCR analysis. (Version 1.0) [web-based application].Google Scholar
- *Windingstad, S., Skinner, C. H., Rowland, E., Cardin, E., & Fearrington, J. Y. (2009). Extending research on a math fluency building intervention: applying taped problems in a second-grade classroom. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 25, 364–381.Google Scholar
- Ysseldyke, J., Thill, T., Pohl, J., & Bolt, D. (2005). Using MathFacts in a flash to enhance computational fluency. Journal of Evidence Based Practices for Schools, 6, 59–89.Google Scholar