Contemporary School Psychology

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 358–368 | Cite as

Effectiveness and Social Validity of the Soles of the Feet Mindfulness-Based Intervention with Special Education Students

  • Joshua C. Felver
  • Sarah L. Felver
  • Kathryn L. Margolis
  • N. Kathryn Ravitch
  • Natalie Romer
  • Robert H. Horner


Soles of the Feet for Students (SOF) has demonstrated effectiveness at increasing academic engagement among general education students. This work intended to replicate and extend previous work by exploring the effectiveness and social validity of SOF among students receiving special education services, who had low levels of academic engagement and high levels of disruptive classroom behavior, in a public school setting. This study utilized a multiple baseline single-subject design. Four students (grades 4–7) were taught SOF over the course of five 20–30-min sessions. Direct observation data of student academically engaged behavior were collected during baseline and post intervention study phases. Students and teachers also completed social validity questionnaires. Following SOF training, all four students demonstrated improved mean levels of academically engaged behavior. Students and teachers also reported that SOF was an acceptable, feasible, and effective intervention. SOF offers a brief and effective manualized intervention to increase student academic engagement, and conversely reduce classroom disruptive behavior, for students receiving special education services.


Mindfulness Students Schools Youth Academic engagement Off-task behavior Special education Education context 



Special thanks to the following for their participation in this research project (listed alphabetically): Jacob Groff, Brian Martens, Christabelle Moore, Maxwell Morris, Kara Tom, and Wayne Wilson. At the time this research study was conducted, all authors were affiliated with the University of Oregon.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


This work was supported by National Institutes of Mental Health Grant.


Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© California Association of School Psychologists 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joshua C. Felver
    • 1
  • Sarah L. Felver
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kathryn L. Margolis
    • 3
  • N. Kathryn Ravitch
    • 4
  • Natalie Romer
    • 5
  • Robert H. Horner
    • 6
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Licensed PsychologistSyracuseUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Psychiatry andPediatricsUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Licensed PsychologistEugeneUSA
  5. 5.Department of Child and Family StudiesUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  6. 6.University of OregonEugeneUSA

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