Advertisement

Contemporary School Psychology

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 276–286 | Cite as

Emotional Labor and the Work of School Psychologists

  • Adam D. WeaverEmail author
  • Joseph A. Allen
Article

Abstract

As the field of school psychology faces critical shortages, investigations of work factors affecting job satisfaction and burnout are of increasing importance. One such factor is emotional labor, which is defined as the work of managing one’s emotions and emotional expressions so as to align to the expectations of the job or profession. In this study, practitioners (N = 192) were surveyed regarding their work experiences, recognition of display rules (standards that guide employees’ emotional expression), surface acting (the form of emotional labor in which employees manage their external emotional expression), job satisfaction, and burnout (consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment). Multiple regression analyses showed that display rule recognition was positively related to surface acting, and surface acting was positively related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization while negatively related to job satisfaction and personal accomplishment. Results suggest that emotional labor may be an important aspect of the work of school psychologists—impacting both job satisfaction and burnout. Limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed.

Keywords

Emotional labor Burnout 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by a grant from the University Committee on Research and Creative Activity at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

The study complied with Institutional Review Board policies of the authors’ institution, and all participants provided consent.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Bacharach, S. B., Bamberger, P., & Conley, S. (1991). Work-home conflict among nurses and engineers: mediating the impact of role stress on burnout and satisfaction at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker, T. E. (2005). Potential problems in the statistical control of variables in organizational research: a qualitative analysis with recommendations. Organizational Research Methods, 8, 274–289. doi: 10.1177/1094428105278021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bolnik, L., & Brock, S. E. (2005). The self-reported effects of crisis intervention work on school psychologists. The California School Psychologist, 10, 117–124. doi: 10.1007/BF03340926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlson, D., Ferguson, M., Hunter, E., & Whitten, D. (2012). Abusive supervision and work-family conflict: the path through emotional labor and burnout. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 849–859. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.05.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chau, S. L., Dahling, J. J., Levy, P. E., & Dieffendorff, J. M. (2009). A predictive study of emotional labor and turnover. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 1151–1163. doi: 10.1002/job.617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chi, N., Grandey, A. A., Diamond, J. A., & Krimmel, K. R. (2011). Want a tip? Service performance as a function of emotion regulation and extraversion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 1337–1346. doi: 10.1037/a0022884.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Conway, J. M., & Lance, C. E. (2010). What reviewers should expect from authors regarding common method bias in organizational research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 325–334. doi: 10.1007/s10869-010-9181-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Curtis, M. J., Hunley, S. A., Walker, K. J., & Baker, A. C. (1999). Demographic characteristics and professional practices in school psychology. School Psychology Review, 28, 104–116.Google Scholar
  9. Diefendorff, J. M., & Croyle, M. H. (2008). Antecedents of emotional display rule commitment. Human Performance, 21, 310–332. doi: 10.1080/08959280802137911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diefendorff, J. M., Croyle, M. H., & Gosserand, R. H. (2005). The dimensionality and antecedents of emotional labor strategies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 339–357. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2004.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diefendorff, J. M., Richard, E. M., & Croyle, M. H. (2006). Are emotional display rules formal job requirements? Examination of employee and supervisor perceptions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79, 273–298. doi: 10.1348/096317905X68484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Filter, K. J., Ebsen, S., & Dibos, R. (2013). School psychology crossroads in America: discrepancies between actual and preferred discrete practices and barriers to preferred practice. International Journal of Special Education, 28, 88–100.Google Scholar
  13. Fisk, G. M., & Friesen, J. P. (2012). Perceptions of leader emotion regulation and LMX as predictors of followers’ job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gibson, J. A., Grey, I. M., & Hastings, R. P. (2009). Supervisor support as a predictor of burnout and therapeutic self-efficacy in therapists working in ABA schools. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1024–1030. doi: 10.1007/s10803-009-0709-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: a new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 95–110. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.5.1.95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Grandey, A. A., Fisk, G. M., & Steiner, D. D. (2005). Must “service with a smile” be stressful? The moderating role of personal control for American and French employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 893–904. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.893.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Grandey, A., Foo, S. C., Groth, M., & Goodwin, R. E. (2012). Free to be you and me: a climate of authenticity alleviates burnout from emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 1–14. doi: 10.1037/a0025102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayes, A. F. (2015). An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50, 1–22. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2014.962683.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: a new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513–524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: commercialization of human feeling. Berkely: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hosp, J. L., & Reschly, D. J. (2002). Regional differences in school psychology practice. School Psychology Review, 31, 11–29.Google Scholar
  22. Judge, T. A., Woolf, E. F., & Hurst, C. (2009). Is emotional labor more difficult for some than for others? A multilevel, experience-sampling study. Personnel Psychology, 62, 57–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., Rubenstein, A. L., Long, D. M., Odio, M. A., Buckman, B. R., Zhang, Y., & Halvorsen-Ganepola, M. D. (2013). A meta-analytic structural model of dispositional affectivity and emotional labor. Personnel Psychology, 66, 47–90. doi: 10.1111/peps.12009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kenworthy, J., Fay, C., Frame, M., & Petree, R. (2014). A meta-analytic review of the relationship between emotional dissonance and emotional exhaustion. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44, 94–105. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1996). Maslach burnout inventory manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychological Press.Google Scholar
  26. National Association of School Psychologists. (2010). Model for comprehensive and integrated school psychological services. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/assets/Documents/Standards%20and%20Certification/Standards/2_PracticeModel.pdf
  27. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Jeong-Yeon, L., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Proctor, B. E., & Steadman, T. (2003). Job satisfaction, burnout, and perceived effectiveness of “in-house” versus traditional school psychologists. Psychology in the Schools, 40, 237–243. doi: 10.1002/pits.10082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Roth, P. L., Switzer, F., & Switzer, D. M. (1999). Missing data in multiple item scales: a Monte Carlo analysis of missing data techniques. Organizational Research Methods, 2, 211–232. doi: 10.1177/109442819923001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rupp, D. E., & Spencer, S. (2006). When customers lash out: the effects of customer interactional injustice on emotional labor and the mediating role of discrete emotions. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 971–978.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Scott, B. A., & Barnes, C. M. (2011). A multilevel field investigation of emotional labor, affect, work withdrawal, and gender. Academy of Management Journal, 54, 116–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shanock, L. R., Allen, J. A., Dunn, A. M., Baran, B. E., Scott, C. W., & Rogelberg, S. G. (2013). Less acting, more doing: how surface acting relates to perceived meeting effectiveness and other employee outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86, 457–476. doi: 10.1111/joop.12037.Google Scholar
  33. Skalski, A. K., Minke, K., Rossen, E., Cowan, K. C., Kelly, J., Armistead, R., & Smith, A. (2015). NASP practice model implementation guide. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  34. VanVoorhis, R. W., & Levinson, E. M. (2006). Job satisfaction among school psychologists: a meta-analysis. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of the brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Worrell, T. G., Skaggs, G. E., & Brown, M. B. (2006). School psychologists’ job satisfaction: a 22 year perspective in the USA. School Psychology International, 27, 131–145. doi: 10.1177/0143034306064540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© California Association of School Psychologists 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology (School Psychology Program)University of Nebraska at OmahaOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology (Industrial-Organizational Psychology Program)University of Nebraska at OmahaOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations