Numerical Simulation of Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycles Under a Wide Range of Temperature

  • Hwabhin Kwon
  • Heesung ParkEmail author
Regular Paper


The thermo-electrochemical characteristics of prismatic lithium-ion batteries is numerically simulated to quantify the degradation and thermal runaway at wide temperature range from − 40 to 80 °C and 150 °C. The numerical simulation describes the effect of temperature on the cell voltage, overpotential and heat generation during charge/discharge process. It is found that the subzero temperature significantly degrades the charge and discharge efficiencies due to high overpotentials while the efficiencies remain constant above 20 °C. Nonetheless, considerable decrease of energy storage capacity is expected above 40 °C. The battery can retain 10% of the nominal energy storage capacity after 1000 charge–discharge cycles when it operates under 80 °C. In addition, thermal runaway also numerically simulated by assuming the accidental temperature of 150 °C. The high temperature causes excessive heat generation during charge/discharge cycles and vice versa. The resulting battery temperature rises to 245 °C which exceeds melting-down temperature of the battery materials to cause combustion or explosion. The thermal behavior of the lithium-ion battery simulated in the study can serve as a guidance for advanced thermal management and strategy.


Numerical simulation Lithium-ion battery Operating temperature Thermal runaway Thermo-electrochemical analysis 

List of Symbols


Area, m2


Lithium ion concentration, mol/m


Specific heat at constant pressure, J/kg K


Diffusion coefficient of the particle


Depth of discharge


Faraday’s constant, 96,487 C/mol


Molar activity coefficient of the electrolyte


Current at the current collector, A


Exchange current density, A/m2


Exchange current density for side reactions, A/m2


Pore wall flux of lithium ions, mol/m2 s


Local current density by side reactions, A/m3


Reaction current density, A/m2


Electrochemical reaction rate constant, S/m


Thermal conductivity, W/m K


Molecular weight, mol/kg


Heat source, W/m3


Gas constant, 8.3145 J mol


Film resistance at the electrode–electrolyte interface, Ω m2


Resistance of film products, Ω m2


Radius, m


State of charge


Temperature, K


Time, s

\({\text{t}}_{ + }\)

Transport number, 0.363


Overpotential, V

Greek Symbols


Transfer coefficient


Bruggeman coefficient


Film thickness, m


Porosity factor


Overpotential for the intercalation reaction, V


Overpotential for side reaction, V


Electrolyte conductivity, S/m




Electrical potential, V

\(\emptyset_{s, film}\)

Electrical potential drop over film, V


Density kg/m3


Electronic conductivity, S/m

Subscripts and Superscripts








Battery cell




Effective value




Decomposition heat












Ohmic resistance


Side reaction


Product formed by side reactions




Reference value










Cycle number



This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (2018R1A5A6075959) and was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (No. NRF-2017M1A3A3A02016566).


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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Mechanical EngineeringChangwon National UniversityChangwonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringChangwon National UniversityChangwonRepublic of Korea

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