Review of 4D printing materials and their properties

  • Dong-Gap Shin
  • Tae-Hyeong Kim
  • Dae-Eun KimEmail author
Review Paper


Since its introduction, the 3D printing technology has been widely used in fields such as design, rapid prototyping, and biomedical devices, owing to its advantages of inexpensive, facile embodiment of computer 3D files into physical objects. Later, 4D printing was introduced by adding the temporal dimension to 3D. Stimuli such as heat, humidity, pH, and light trigger the actuation of printed objects without motors or wires. Smart materials that respond to external stimuli are good candidates for 4D printing. In this paper, we review the recent research on 4D printing, and categorize it with respect to the activating stimuli. The mechanical properties of 4D printing materials are mentioned as well. Finally, the future of 4D printing is discussed.


3D printing 4D printing Shape memory effect Shape memory polymer 


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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringYonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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