Advertisement

Current Sleep Medicine Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 164–172 | Cite as

The Implications of Screen Media Use for the Sleep Behavior of Children Ages 0–5: a Systematic Review of the Literature

  • Jessica D. MoormanEmail author
  • Paige Morgan
  • Tessa L. Adams
Sleep and Technology (J Van den Bulck, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Sleep and Technology

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This literature review explores the impact of screen media consumption on the quality, quantity, regularity, and structure of sleep among children ages 0–5 years. Thirty-one studies were included for review.

Recent Findings

Screen media use was found to negatively impact young children’s sleep. Greater consumption of, access and exposure to, and engagement with screen media was associated with shorter nightly and total daily sleep duration, poorer sleep quality, later bed times and wake times, and longer sleep onset. Day time nap duration was inversely associated with screen media use, an outcome suggestive of delays in sleep consolidation.

Summary

Extant research has established problematic relations between the young children’s screen media use and sleep behavior. Future research must work to better understand the impact of young children’s screen media’s use practices on their sleep and identify the mechanisms underpinning screen media’s relations to nap and sleep consolidation.

Keywords

Screen media use Sleep behavior Preschoolers Infants Toddlers 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Jessica D. Moorman, Paige Morgan, and Tessa L. Adams each declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    • The World Health Organization. Guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children under 5 years of age, ISBN 978-92-4-155053-6. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/311664. The World Health Organization’s report offers updated, global guidelines for the sleep behavior and screen media use of young children ages 0–4 years. Accessed 8 July 2019.
  2. 2.
    Lauricella AR, Wartella E, Rideout VJ. Young children’s screen time: the complex role of parent and child factors. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2015;36:11–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2014.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Matricciani L, Olds T, Petkov J. In search of lost sleep: secular trends in the sleep time of school-aged children and adolescents. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16:203–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2011.03.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cain N, Gradisar M. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. Sleep Med. 2010;11:735–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2010.02.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hale L, Guan S. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;21:50–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2014.07.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Adam E, Snell E, Pendry P. Sleep timing and quantity in ecological and family context: a nationally representative time-diary study. J Fam Psychol. 2007;21:4–19.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.21.1.4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brambilla P, Giussani M, Pasinato A, Venturelli L, Privitera F, Miraglia del Giudice E, et al. Sleep habits and pattern in 1-14 years old children and relationship with video devices use and evening and night child activities. Ital J Pediatr Rivista Italiana Di Pediatria. 2017;43:7.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-016-0324-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ikeda M, Kaneita Y, Kondo S, Itani O, Ohida T. Epidemiological study of sleep habits among four-and-a-half-year-old children in Japan. Sleep Med. 2012;13:787–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2011.11.019. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    •• Beyens I, Nathanson AI. Electronic media use and sleep among preschoolers: evidence for time-shifted and less consolidated sleep. Health Commun. 2019;34:537–44.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2017.1422102 Beyens and Nathanson’s study of screen media use, sleep consolidation, and nap behavior offers one of the first glimpses into the negative impact of the quantity of consumption and the timing of screen media use on sleep consolidation among young children. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McDonald L, Wardle J, Llewellyn C, Van Jaarsveld C, Fisher A. Predictors of shorter sleep in early childhood. Sleep Med. 2014;15:536–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2014.01.005. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    •• Moorman J, Harrison K. Beyond access and exposure: implications of sneaky media use for preschoolers’ sleep behavior. Health Commun. 2019;34:529–36.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2017.1422103 Moorman and Harrison’s study introduces the concept of sneaky media use, the frequency with which a child is found to be using the media when they were supposed to be sleeping. Researchers found sneaky media use contributes to reductions in nightly sleep duration. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vijakkhana N, Wilaisakditipakorn T, Ruedeekhajorn K, Pruksananonda C, Chonchaiya W. Evening media exposure reduces night-time sleep. Acta Paediatr. 2015;104:306–12.  https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.12904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cespedes EM, Gillman MW, Kleinman K, Rifas-Shiman SL, Redline S, Taveras EM. Television viewing, bedroom television, and sleep duration from infancy to mid-childhood. Pediatrics. 2014;133:e1163–71.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    •• Chonchaiya W, Wilaisakditipakorn T, Vijakkhana N, Pruksananonda C. Background media exposure prolongs nighttime sleep latency in Thai infants. Pediatr Res. 2017;81:322.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2014.01.005 Chonchiaya et al. established that in the homes of infants, passive and environmental screen media use is associated with delays sleep onset. This study is one of few to establish environmental media use as a factor disrupting infants’ healthy sleep. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Thompson D, Christakis D. The association between television viewing and irregular sleep schedules among children less than 3 years of age. Pediatrics. 2005;116:851–6.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hense S, Barba G, Pohlabeln H, De Henauw S, Marild S, Molnar D, et al. Factors that influence weekday sleep duration in European children. Sleep. 2011;34:633–9.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/34.5.633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marinelli M, Sunyer J, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Iñiguez C, Torrent M, Vioque J, et al. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168:458–64.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.3861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chung S, Wilson K, Miller A, Johnson D, Lumeng J, Chervin R. Home sleeping conditions and sleep quality in low-income preschool children. Sleep Med Res. 2014;5:29–32.  https://doi.org/10.17241/smr.2014.5.1.29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garrison M, Liekweg K, Christakis D. Media use and child sleep: the impact of content, timing, and environment. Pediatrics. 2011;128:29–35.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-3304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    •• Genuneit J, Brockmann P, Schlarb A, Rothenbacher D. Media consumption and sleep quality in early childhood: results from the Ulm SPATZ health study. Sleep Med. 2018;45:7–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2017.10.013 Genuneit et al.’s study is one of the first studies to establish longitudinal relations between greater consumption of screen media use and poorer sleep quality among young children. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li S, Jin X, Wu S, Jiang F, Yan C, Shen X. The impact of media use on sleep patterns and sleep disorders among school-aged children in China. Sleep. 2007;30:361–7.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/30.3.361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li S, Zhu S, Jin X, Yan C, Wu S, Jiang F, et al. Risk factors associated with short sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children. Sleep Med. 2010;11:907–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2010.03.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Owens JA, Spirito A, McGuinn M. The Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ): psychometric properties of a survey instrument for school-aged children. Sleep. 2000;23:1043–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02187.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sciberras E, Song JC, Mulraney M, Schuster T, Hiscock H. Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: associations with parenting style and sleep hygiene. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;26:1129–39.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-017-1000-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Séguin D, Klimek V. Just five more minutes please: electronic media use, sleep and behaviour in young children. Early Child Dev Care. 2016;186:981–1000.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2015.1071528. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brockmann PE, Diaz B, Damiani F, Villarroel L, Núñez F, Bruni O. Impact of television on the quality of sleep in preschool children. Sleep Med. 2016;20:140–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2015.06.005. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bruni O, Ottaviano S, Guidetti V, Romoli M, Innocenzi M, Cortesi F, et al. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). Construction and validation of an instrument to evaluate sleep disturbances in childhood and adolescence. J Sleep Res. 1996;5:251–61.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.1996.00251.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Paavonen EJ, Pennonen M, Roine M, Valkonen S, Lahikainen AR. TV exposure associated with sleep disturbances in 5-to 6-year-old children. J Sleep Res. 2006;15:154–61.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2006.00525.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Achenbach TM, Edelbrock C. Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Press; 1983.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Achenbach TM. Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry; 1991.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mistry KB, Minkovitz CS, Strobino DM, Borzekowski DL. Children’s television exposure and behavioral and social outcomes at 5.5 years: does timing of exposure matter? Pediatrics. 2007;120:762–9.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2006-3573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Foley LS, Maddison R, Jiang Y, Marsh S, Olds T, Ridley K. Presleep activities and time of sleep onset in children. Pediatrics. 2013;131:276–82.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lo M. Relationship between sleep habits and nighttime sleep among healthy preschool children in Taiwan. Ann Acad Med Singap. 2016;45:549–56.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1651.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sadeh A. A brief screening questionnaire for infant sleep problems: validation and findings for an Internet sample. Pediatr Springfield. 2004;113:1795–e577.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.113.6.e570.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    •• Chindamo S, Buja A, DeBattisti E, Terraneo A, Marini E, Perez LJ, et al. Sleep and new media usage in toddlers. Eur J Pediatr. 2019;16:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-019-03318-7 Chindamo et al. highlight the unique and robust impact that tablet and touchscreen media play on young children’s sleep. Researchers found that when compared to television consumption, a long-standing contributor to negative sleep outcomes, touch screen media use has a greater, negative impact on child sleep. Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    •• Twenge JM, Hisler GC, Krizan Z. Associations between screen time and sleep duration are primarily driven by portable electronic devices: evidence from a population-based study of US children ages 0–17. Sleep Med. 2019;56:211–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2018.11.009 Twenge, Hisler, and Krizan’s study provides early evidence that portable screen media devices contribute to shorter overall sleep duration in young children. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Peña MM, Rifas-Shiman SL, Gillman MW, Redline S, Taveras EM. Racial/ethnic and socio-contextual correlates of chronic sleep curtailment in childhood. Sleep. 2016;39:1653–61.  https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.6086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Uebergang L, Arnup S, Hiscock H, Care E, Quach J. Sleep problems in the first year of elementary school: the role of sleep hygiene, gender and socioeconomic status. Sleep Health. 2017;3:142–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2017.02.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mindell JA, Meltzer LJ, Carskadon MA, Chervin RD. Developmental aspects of sleep hygiene: findings from the 2004 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll. Sleep Med. 2009;10:771–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2008.07.016. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    • Exelmans L, Van den Bulck J. Sleep research: a primer for media scholars. Health Commun. 2019;34:519–28.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2017.1422100 Exelmans and Van den Bulck provide a detailed overview of the important physiological features of sleep behavior and terminology used by sleep researchers that communication researchers must know in order to effectively contribute to sleep and media research.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bandura A. Social cognitive theory. In: Van Lange PAM, Kruglanski AW, Higgins ET, editors. Handbook of social psychological theories. Washington, D.C.: Sage; 2012.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cheung CH, Bedford R, De Urabain IR, Karmiloff-Smith A, Smith TJ. Daily touchscreen use in infants and toddlers is associated with reduced sleep and delayed sleep onset. Sci Rep. 2017;7:46104.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep46104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Magee CA, Lee JK, Vella S. Bidirectional relationships between sleep duration and screen time in early childhood. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168:465–70.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica D. Moorman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paige Morgan
    • 1
  • Tessa L. Adams
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Journalism and Mass CommunicationUniversity of IowaIowaUSA

Personalised recommendations