Current Sleep Medicine Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 128–134 | Cite as

Media Use and Sleep in Teenagers: What Do We Know?

  • Lauren HaleEmail author
  • Xian Li
  • Lauren E. Hartstein
  • Monique K. LeBourgeois
Sleep and Technology (J Van den Bulck, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Sleep and Technology


Purpose of Review

The screen-based media landscape has changed markedly during the last decade, with 95% of American teens owning or having access to a smartphone. Coinciding with the rise in digital media devices, researchers have noted a high prevalence of insufficient sleep among youth. In this article, we review recent literature about adolescents’ screen use behaviors and sleep health outcomes published between 2015 and 2019.

Recent Findings

Overall, we found a high level of screen use and poor sleep health (i.e., short duration, poor quality, late timing) among adolescents. The great majority of recent observational studies demonstrated a robust inverse association between screen media device use and sleep outcomes among adolescents all over the world. Screen-based media use has also been linked to a series of adverse psychosocial and behavioral outcomes, partially if not fully mediated through impaired sleep health. Experimental data, however, offer mixed findings on the causal relationship between teen media use and sleep. In addition, there is uncertainty as to the relative roles of the proposed mechanisms underlying those relationships, whether driven by the light emitted by devices, time displacement, or the media content affecting psychological state (e.g., fear of missing out, anxiety).


Current empirical research demonstrates that screen-based digital media use is closely associated with sleep duration and sleep quality among teens; however, limited data show a direct causal effect of screen-based media use on adolescent sleep health. With very few studies demonstrating easy-to-implement and effective interventions, we argue that more basic, translational, and clinical research is necessary.


Sleep Screens Video Television Smartphones Social media Adolescents Teenagers Digital media Electronic media 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Authors on this paper declare support by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers R01HD073352 (supporting Dr. Hale, Dr. Li), R01HD087707, and UG3/UH3OD023313 (supporting Dr. LeBourgeois and Dr. Hartstein). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Outside of the current work, Dr. Hale receives an honorarium from the National Sleep Foundation for her role as Editor-in-Chief of the journal, Sleep Health.

Human and Animal Rights Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Sleep in America poll: teens and sleep. National Sleep Foundation Retrieved from: https://www.sleepfoundationorg/sites/default/files/2006_summary_of_findingspdf. 2006.
  2. 2.
    Anderson M, Jiang J. Teens, social media and technology. Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project; 2018.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The common sense census: media use by tweens and teens. Common Sense Media Inc; 2015.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buxton OM, Chang A-M, Spilsbury JC, Bos T, Emsellem H, Knutson KL. Sleep in the modern family: protective family routines for child and adolescent sleep. Sleep Health. 2015;1(1):15–27.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    •• Twenge JM, Hisler GC, Krizan Z. Associations between screen time and sleep duration are primarily driven by portable electronic devices: evidence from a population-based study of U.S. children ages 0–17. Sleep Med. 2019;56:211–8. National survey data revealed that US children and teens spent more time on screen devices slept fewer hours, and short sleep duration was more strongly associated with changes in portable electronic device use compared with stationary device use. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Twenge JM, Krizan Z, Hisler G. Decreases in self-reported sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009–2015 and association with new media screen time. Sleep Med. 2017;39:47–53.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tarokh L, Saletin JM, Carskadon MA. Sleep in adolescence: physiology, cognition and mental health. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;70:182–8.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoyt LT, Maslowsky J, Olson JS, et al. Adolescent sleep barriers: profiles within a diverse sample of urban youth. J Youth Adolesc. 2018;47(10):2169–80.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hale L, Guan S. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;21:50–8.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mei X, Zhou Q, Li X, et al. Sleep problems in excessive technology use among adolescent: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Sci Pract. 2018;2(1):9.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    LeBourgeois MK, Hale L, Chang AM, et al. Digital media and sleep in childhood and adolescence. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Suppl 2):S92–6.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bartel KA, Gradisar M, Williamson P. Protective and risk factors for adolescent sleep: a meta-analytic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;21:72–85.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carter B, Rees P, Hale L, et al. Association between portable screen-based media device access or use and sleep outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(12):1202–8.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johansson AE, Petrisko MA, Chasens ER. Adolescent sleep and the impact of technology use before sleep on daytime function. J Pediatr Nurs. 2016;31(5):498–504.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Royant-Parola S, Londe V, Tréhout S, et al. The use of social media modifies teenagers’ sleep-related behavior. L’Encephale. 2018;44(4):321–8.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Arrona-Palacios A. High and low use of electronic media during nighttime before going to sleep: a comparative study between adolescents attending a morning or afternoon school shift. J Adolesc. 2017;61:152–63.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Akcay D, Akcay BD. The influence of media on the sleep quality in adolescents. Turk J Pediatr. 2018;60(3):255–63.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    da Silva AO, de Oliveira LMFT, dos Santos MAM, et al. Tempo De Tela, PercepÇÃo Da Qualidade De Sono E EpisÓdios De Parassonia Em Adolescentes. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2017;23(5):375–9.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bansal S, Mahajan RC. Impact of mobile use amongst children in rural area of Marathwada region of Maharashtra, India. Int J Contemp Pediatr. 2017;5(1):50.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oka Y, Suzuki S, Inoue Y. Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and sleep/wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children. Behav Sleep Med. 2008;6(4):220–33.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sampasa-Kanyinga H, Hamilton HA, Chaput JP. Use of social media is associated with short sleep duration in a dose–response manner in students aged 11 to 20 years. Acta Paediatr. 2018;107(4):694–700.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    King DLD, Delfabbro PH, Zwaans T, Kaptsis D. Sleep interference effects of pathological electronic media use during adolescence. Int J Ment Health. 2014;1:21–35.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nuutinen T, Ray C, Roos E. Do computer use, TV viewing, and the presence of the media in the bedroom predict school-aged children’s sleep habits in a longitudinal study? BMC Public Health. 2013;13:684.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mireku MO, Barker MM, Mutz J, et al. Night-time screen-based media device use and adolescents’ sleep and health-related quality of life. Environ Int. 2019;124:66–78.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alexandru G, Michikazu S, Shimako H, Xiaoli C, Hitomi K, Takashi Y, et al. Epidemiological aspects of self-reported sleep onset latency in Japanese junior high school children. J Sleep Res. 2006;15(3):266–75.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Scott H, Woods HC. Fear of missing out and sleep: cognitive behavioural factors in adolescents’ nighttime social media use. J Adolesc. 2018;68:61–5.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kelly Y, Zilanawala A, Booker C, et al. Social media use and adolescent mental health: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. EClinicalMedicine. 2018;6:59–68.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lemola S, Perkinson-Gloor N, Brand S, et al. Adolescents’ electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. J Youth Adolesc. 2015;44(2):405–18.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    •• Li X, Buxton OM, Lee S, et al. Sleep mediates the association between adolescent screen time and depressive symptoms. Sleep Med. 2019;57:51–60. Four types of screen-based activities were associated with more sleep problems and shorter sleep duration, which further link with more adolescent depressive symptoms. Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lange K, Cohrs S, Skarupke C, et al. Electronic media use and insomnia complaints in German adolescents: gender differences in use patterns and sleep problems. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017;124(Suppl 1):79–87.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ivarsson M, Anderson M, Akerstedt T, et al. The effect of violent and nonviolent video games on heart rate variability, sleep, and emotions in adolescents with different violent gaming habits. Psychosom Med. 2013;75(4):390–6.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Munezawa T, Kaneita Y, Osaki Y, et al. The association between use of mobile phones after lights out and sleep disturbances among Japanese adolescents: a nationwide cross-sectional survey. Sleep. 2011;34(8):1013–20.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Woods HC, Scott H. #Sleepyteens: social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem. J Adolesc. 2016;51:41–9.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Galland BC, Gray AR, Penno J, et al. Gender differences in sleep hygiene practices and sleep quality in New Zealand adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. Sleep Health. 2017;3(2):77–83.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wallenius M, Punamäki RL, Rimpela A. Digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression in early adolescence: the roles of age, social intelligence, and parent-child communication. J Youth Adolesc. 2007;36(3):325–36.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lemola S, Brand S, Vogler N, Perkinson-Gloor N, Allemand M, Grob A. Habitual computer game playing at night is related to depressive symptoms. Pers Individ Differ. 2011;51(2):117–22.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jun N, Lee A, Baik I. Associations of caffeinated beverage consumption and screen time with excessive daytime sleepiness in Korean high school students. Clin Nutr Res. 2017;6(1):55–60.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brunetti VC, O’Loughlin EK, O’Loughlin J, et al. Screen and nonscreen sedentary behavior and sleep in adolescents. Sleep Health. 2016;2(4):335–40.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Przybylski AK. Digital screen time and pediatric sleep: evidence from a preregistered cohort study. J Pediatr. 2019;205:218–23 e1.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schweizer A, Berchtold A, Barrense-Dias Y, et al. Adolescents with a smartphone sleep less than their peers. Eur J Pediatr. 2017;176(1):131–6.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Continente X, Pérez A, Espelt A, et al. Media devices, family relationships and sleep patterns among adolescents in an urban area. Sleep Med. 2017;32:28–35.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bruni O, Sette S, Fontanesi L, et al. Technology use and sleep quality in preadolescence and adolescence. J Clin Sleep Med. 2015;11(12):1433–41.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dube N, Khan K, Loehr S, et al. The use of entertainment and communication technologies before sleep could affect sleep and weight status: a population-based study among children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14(1):97.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cabre-Riera A, Torrent M, Donaire-Gonzalez D, et al. Telecommunication devices use, screen time and sleep in adolescents. Environ Res. 2019;171:341–7.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    •• Fobian AD, Avis K, Schwebel DC. Impact of media use on adolescent sleep efficiency. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2016;37(1):9–14. Actigraphy data indicated that sleep efficiency was negatively correlated to daily and bedtime media use, as well as nighttime awakenings by mobile phones. Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Troxel WM, Hunter G, Scharf D. Say “GDNT”: frequency of adolescent texting at night. Sleep Health. 2015;1(4):300–3.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Foerster M, Henneke A, Chetty-Mhlanga S, et al. Impact of adolescents’ screen time and nocturnal mobile phone-related awakenings on sleep and general health symptoms: a prospective cohort study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(3):518.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mazzer K, Bauducco S, Linton SJ, et al. Longitudinal associations between time spent using technology and sleep duration among adolescents. J Adolesc. 2018;66:112–9.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Poulain T, Vogel M, Buzek T, et al. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between adolescents’ media consumption and sleep. Behav Sleep Med. 2018;24:1–15.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Eggermont S, Van den Bulck J. Nodding off or switching off? The use of popular media as a sleep aid in secondary-school children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2006;42(7–8):428–33.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Reynolds AC, Meltzer LJ, Dorrian J, et al. Impact of high-frequency email and instant messaging (E/IM) interactions during the hour before bed on self-reported sleep duration and sufficiency in female Australian children and adolescents. Sleep Health. 2019;5(1):64–7.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hysing M, Pallesen S, Stormark KM, et al. Sleep and use of electronic devices in adolescence: results from a large population-based study. BMJ Open. 2015;5(1):e006748.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Owens J, Maxim R, McGuinn M, et al. Television-viewing habits and sleep disturbance in school children. Pediatrics. 1999;104(3):e27.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Van den Bulck J. Television viewing, computer game playing, and Internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep. 2004;27(1):101–4.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kubiszewski V, Fontaine R, Rusch E, et al. Association between electronic media use and sleep habits: an eight-day follow-up study. Int J Adolesc Youth. 2014;19(3):395–407.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Garrison MM, Liekweg K, Christakis DA. Media use and child sleep: the impact of content, timing, and environment. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):29–35.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mazurek MO, Engelhardt CR, Hilgard J, et al. Bedtime electronic media use and sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2016;37(7):525–31.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wolfe J, Kar K, Perry A, et al. Single night video-game use leads to sleep loss and attention deficits in older adolescents. J Adolesc. 2014;37(7):1003–9.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    King DL, Gradisar M, Drummond A, et al. The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: an experimental study. J Sleep Res. 2013;22(2):137–43.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Arora T, Broglia E, Thomas GN, et al. Associations between specific technologies and adolescent sleep quantity, sleep quality, and parasomnias. Sleep Med. 2014;15(2):240–7.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Arora T, Hussain S, Hubert Lam KB, et al. Exploring the complex pathways among specific types of technology, self-reported sleep duration and body mass index in UK adolescents. Int J Obes. 2013;37(9):1254–60.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Weaver E, Gradisar M, Dohnt H, et al. The effect of presleep video-game playing on adolescent sleep. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6(2):184–9.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Falbe J, Davison KK, Franckle RL, et al. Sleep duration, restfulness, and screens in the sleep environment. Pediatrics. 2015;135(2):e367–75.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chahal H, Fung C, Kuhle S, et al. Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children. Pediatr Obes. 2013;8(1):42–51.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    •• Chang AM, Aeschbach D, Duffy JF, et al. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112(4):1232–7. Data from young adults revealed that reading on an e-book for 4 hours before bedtime leads to melatonin suppression, longer sleep latency, and less sleepiness before bed compared with reading from a printed book. Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chinoy ED, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA. Unrestricted evening use of light-emitting tablet computers delays self-selected bedtime and disrupts circadian timing and alertness. Phys Rep. 2018;6(10):e13692.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gronli J, Byrkjedal IK, Bjorvatn B, et al. Reading from an iPad or from a book in bed: the impact on human sleep. A randomized controlled crossover trial. Sleep Med. 2016;21:86–92.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Peracchia S, Curcio G. Exposure to video games: effects on sleep and on post-sleep cognitive abilities. A systematic review of experimental evidences. Sleep Sci. 2018;11(4):302–14.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Green A, Cohen-Zion M, Haim A, et al. Evening light exposure to computer screens disrupts human sleep, biological rhythms, and attention abilities. Chronobiol Int. 2017;34(7):855–65.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nagare R, Plitnick B, Figueiro MG. Effect of exposure duration and light spectra on nighttime melatonin suppression in adolescents and adults. Light Res Technol. 2018;0:1–14.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jones MJ, Peeling P, Dawson B, et al. Evening electronic device use: the effects on alertness, sleep and next-day physical performance in athletes. J Sports Sci. 2018;36(2):162–70.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rangtell FH, Ekstrand E, Rapp L, et al. Two hours of evening reading on a self-luminous tablet vs. reading a physical book does not alter sleep after daytime bright light exposure. Sleep Med. 2016;23:111–8.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Laborde S, Hosang T, Mosley E, et al. Influence of a 30-day slow-paced breathing intervention compared to social media use on subjective sleep quality and cardiac vagal activity. J Clin Med. 2019;8(2):193.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hart CN, Hawley N, Davey A, et al. Effect of experimental change in children’s sleep duration on television viewing and physical activity. Pediatr Obes. 2017;12(6):462–7.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Harris A, Gundersen H, Mork-Andreassen P, et al. Restricted use of electronic media, sleep, performance, and mood in high school athletes--a randomized trial. Sleep Health. 2015;1(4):314–21.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Brand S, Gerber M, Beck J, et al. High exercise levels are related to favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning in adolescents: a comparison of athletes and controls. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46(2):133–41.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    •• Bartel K, Scheeren R, Gradisar M. Altering adolescents’ pre-bedtime phone use to achieve better sleep health. Health Commun. 2019;34(4):456–62. When asked to stop mobile phone use 1 hour prior to bedtime, adolescents turned off their lights earlier and slept longer. Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Paterson JL, Reynolds AC, Duncan M, et al. Barriers and enablers to modifying sleep behavior in adolescents and young adults: a qualitative investigation. Behav Sleep Med. 2017;17(1):1–11.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Milyavskaya M, Saffran M, Hope N, et al. Fear of missing out: prevalence, dynamics, and consequences of experiencing FOMO. Motiv Emot. 2018;42(5):725–37.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    •• van der Lely S, Frey S, Garbazza C, et al. Blue blocker glasses as a countermeasure for alerting effects of evening light-emitting diode screen exposure in male teenagers. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56(1):113–9. Wearing blue blocker glasses reduced the negative effects of blue light at night in adolescents. Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Figueiro M, Overington D. Self-luminous devices and melatonin suppression in adolescents. Light Res Technol. 2015;0:1–10.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Heath M, Sutherland C, Bartel K, et al. Does one hour of bright or short-wavelength filtered tablet screenlight have a meaningful effect on adolescents’ pre-bedtime alertness, sleep, and daytime functioning? Chronobiol Int. 2014;31(4):496–505.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Das-Friebel A, Perkinson-Gloor N, Brand S, et al. A pilot cluster-randomised study to increase sleep duration by decreasing electronic media use at night and caffeine consumption in adolescents. Sleep Med. 2019;60:109–15.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Barber LK, Cucalon MS. Modifying the sleep treatment education program for students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes. Stress Health. 2017;33(5):684–90.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rogers AP, Barber LK. Addressing FoMO and telepressure among university students: could a technology intervention help with social media use and sleep disruption? Comput Hum Behav. 2019;93:192–9.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tang S, Patrick ME. Technology and interactive social media use among 8th and 10th graders in the U.S. and associations with homework and school grades. Comput Hum Behav. 2018;86:34–44.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Dimitriou D, Le Cornu Knight F, Milton P. The role of environmental factors on sleep patterns and school performance in adolescents. Front Psychol. 2015;6:1717.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Vernon L, Barber BL, Modecki KL. Adolescent problematic social networking and school experiences: the mediating effects of sleep disruptions and sleep quality. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2015;18(7):386–92.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Parent J, Sanders W, Forehand R. Youth screen time and behavioral health problems: the role of sleep duration and disturbances. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2016;37(4):277–84.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Xie X, Dong Y, Wang J. Sleep quality as a mediator of problematic smartphone use and clinical health symptoms. J Behav Addict. 2018;7(2):466–72.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Vernon L, Modecki KL, Barber BL. Tracking effects of problematic social networking on adolescent psychopathology: the mediating role of sleep disruptions. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2017;46(2):269–83.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zhao J, Zhang Y, Jiang F, et al. Excessive screen time and psychosocial well-being: the mediating role of body mass index, sleep duration, and parent-child interaction. J Pediatr. 2018;202:157–62 e1.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mei X, Hu Z, Zhou D, et al. Sleep patterns, mobile phone use and psychological symptoms among adolescents in coastal developed city of China: an exploratory cross-sectional study. Sleep Biol Rhythms. 2019;17(2):233–41.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    •• Vernon L, Modecki KL, Barber BL. Mobile phones in the bedroom: trajectories of sleep habits and subsequent adolescent psychosocial development. Child Dev. 2018;89(1):66–77. Longitudinal data over 4 years shown that decreased sleep quality mediated the relationship between increased nighttime mobile phone use behaviors and decreased adolescent psychosocial well-being. Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Seo JH, Kim JH, Yang KI, et al. Late use of electronic media and its association with sleep, depression, and suicidality among Korean adolescents. Sleep Med. 2017;29:76–80.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kiraly O, Griffiths MD, King DL, et al. Policy responses to problematic video game use: a systematic review of current measures and future possibilities. J Behav Addict. 2018;7(3):503–17.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Choi J, Cho H, Lee S, et al. Effect of the online game shutdown policy on Internet use, Internet addiction, and sleeping hours in Korean adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2018;62(5):548–55.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lee C, Kim H, Hong A. Ex-post evaluation of illegalizing juvenile online game after midnight: a case of shutdown policy in South Korea. Telematics Inform. 2017;34(8):1597–606.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren Hale
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xian Li
    • 1
  • Lauren E. Hartstein
    • 2
  • Monique K. LeBourgeois
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Family, Population and Preventive Medicine, Program in Public HealthRenaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Integrative PhysiologyUniversity of Colorado BoulderBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations