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Current Sleep Medicine Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 128–134 | Cite as

Media Use and Sleep in Teenagers: What Do We Know?

  • Lauren HaleEmail author
  • Xian Li
  • Lauren E. Hartstein
  • Monique K. LeBourgeois
Sleep and Technology (J Van den Bulck, Section Editor)
  • 32 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Sleep and Technology

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The screen-based media landscape has changed markedly during the last decade, with 95% of American teens owning or having access to a smartphone. Coinciding with the rise in digital media devices, researchers have noted a high prevalence of insufficient sleep among youth. In this article, we review recent literature about adolescents’ screen use behaviors and sleep health outcomes published between 2015 and 2019.

Recent Findings

Overall, we found a high level of screen use and poor sleep health (i.e., short duration, poor quality, late timing) among adolescents. The great majority of recent observational studies demonstrated a robust inverse association between screen media device use and sleep outcomes among adolescents all over the world. Screen-based media use has also been linked to a series of adverse psychosocial and behavioral outcomes, partially if not fully mediated through impaired sleep health. Experimental data, however, offer mixed findings on the causal relationship between teen media use and sleep. In addition, there is uncertainty as to the relative roles of the proposed mechanisms underlying those relationships, whether driven by the light emitted by devices, time displacement, or the media content affecting psychological state (e.g., fear of missing out, anxiety).

Summary

Current empirical research demonstrates that screen-based digital media use is closely associated with sleep duration and sleep quality among teens; however, limited data show a direct causal effect of screen-based media use on adolescent sleep health. With very few studies demonstrating easy-to-implement and effective interventions, we argue that more basic, translational, and clinical research is necessary.

Keywords

Sleep Screens Video Television Smartphones Social media Adolescents Teenagers Digital media Electronic media 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Authors on this paper declare support by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers R01HD073352 (supporting Dr. Hale, Dr. Li), R01HD087707, and UG3/UH3OD023313 (supporting Dr. LeBourgeois and Dr. Hartstein). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Outside of the current work, Dr. Hale receives an honorarium from the National Sleep Foundation for her role as Editor-in-Chief of the journal, Sleep Health.

Human and Animal Rights Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren Hale
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xian Li
    • 1
  • Lauren E. Hartstein
    • 2
  • Monique K. LeBourgeois
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Family, Population and Preventive Medicine, Program in Public HealthRenaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Integrative PhysiologyUniversity of Colorado BoulderBoulderUSA

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