Current Sleep Medicine Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 152–163 | Cite as

Current Techniques and Role of Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  • Melissa S. Oh
  • Raj C. Dedhia
Sleep and Otolaryngology (H Gouveris, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Sleep and Otolaryngology


Purpose of Review

Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) was developed for dynamic evaluation of the airway collapse under simulated sleep conditions. DISE has been extensively studied in the last 25 years to standardize the procedures and classification as well as its role in non-surgical and surgical management. The goal of this study is to determine current techniques and recommendations regarding DISE.

Recent Findings

Current research suggests that standardization with target-controlled infusion and bispectral analysis may be safer and more reproducible. The velum, oropharyngeal, tongue base, epiglottis classification remains the most commonly used to describe the obstruction. While DISE changes surgical management in 50% of patients, there are few studies to evaluate differences in surgical outcomes with and without DISE. Emerging evidence suggests complete collapse of the velum and hypopharyngeal obstruction are associated with poor surgical outcomes.


Going forward, more information is required to determine how well DISE mimics natural sleep and its role in decision-making for patients seeking alternatives to continuous positive airway pressure.


Drug-induced sleep endoscopy Obstructive sleep apnea Bispectral analysis Müller’s maneuver 



Apnea-hypopnea index




Bispectral index


Body mass index


Complete concentric collapse


Drug-induced sleep endoscopy


Laser-assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty


Müller’s maneuver


Oxygen desaturation index


Obstructive sleep apnea




Target-controlled infusion




Velum, oropharyngeal, tongue base, epiglottis


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Melissa S. Oh and Raj C. Dedhia each declare no potential conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All reported studies with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).


Papers of particular interest, published recently have been highlighted as: • Of importance. •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Emory Sleep Center, Emory HealthcareAtlantaUSA

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