Advertisement

Trauma and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Review, Proposed Treatment Adaptations and Future Directions

  • Jessica L. Peterson
  • Rachel K. Earl
  • Emily A. Fox
  • Ruqian Ma
  • Ghina Haidar
  • Micah Pepper
  • Lucy Berliner
  • Arianne S. Wallace
  • Raphael A. BernierEmail author
Treatment Approach

Abstract

Empirical investigations of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are lacking despite indications of increased risk for exposure to potentially traumatic events in this population. Research on the treatment of traumatic stress psychopathology in ASD is even more limited and suggests a critical need for guidance in the area of ASD-specific treatment adaptations. The current paper provides preliminary recommendations for adapting current evidenced-based, trauma-specific interventions, specifically trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), for individuals with ASD based on well-established and evidence-based practices for working with this population. These adaptations highlight the need to incorporate treatment goals related to ASD core symptoms and associated characteristics during treatment targeting traumatic stress symptoms. Future directions are discussed, including the development of instruments measuring trauma reactions in ASD, empirical investigations of modified trauma interventions for children with ASD to evaluate effectiveness, and collaboration between professionals specializing in ASD and trauma/PTSD to advance research and facilitate effective care for this community.

Keywords

Autism Autism Spectrum Trauma Post-traumatic stress disorder Trauma treatment 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Disclosures

All authors report no financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, S. R., Taras, M., & Cannon, B. O. (1996). Teaching new skills to young children with autism. In C. Maurice, G. Green, & S. C. Luce (Eds.), Behavioral intervention for young children with autism (pp. 181–194). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, C., Law, J. K., Daniels, A., Rice, C., Mandell, D. S., Hagopian, L., & Law, P. A. (2012). Occurrence and family impact of elopement in children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 130(5), 870–877.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey, A., Le Couteur, A., Gottesman, I., Bolton, P., Simonoff, E., Yuzda, E., & Rutter, M. (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence from a British twin study. Psychological Medicine, 25(1), 63–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baio, J., Wiggins, L., Christensen, D. L., Maenner, M. J., Daniels, J., Warren, Z.,... Dowling, N. F. (2018). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years — Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveill Summaries, 67(SS-6), 1–23.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6706a1
  6. Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21, 37–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., & Plumb, I. (2001). The “Reading the mind in the eyes” test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42(2), 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauminger, N. (2002). The facilitation of social-emotional understanding and social interaction in high-functioning children with autism: Intervention outcomes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 283–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauminger, N. (2007a). Brief report: Individual social-multi-modal intervention for HFASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(8), 1593–1604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauminger, N. (2007b). Brief report: Group social-multimodal intervention for HFASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(8), 1605–1615.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bearss, K., Johnson, C., Handen, B., Smith, T., & Scahill, L. (2013). A pilot study of parent training in young children with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(4), 829–840.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bearss, K., Johnson, C., Smith, T., Lecavalier, L., Swiezy, N., Aman, M., ... Scahill, L. (2015). Effect of parent training vs parent education on behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 313(15), 1524–1533.Google Scholar
  13. Beaumont, R., & Sofronoff, K. (2008). A multi-component social skills intervention for children with Asperger syndrome: The junior detective training program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(7), 743–753.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1996). Intact and impaired memory functions in autism. Child Development, 67(4), 1816–1835.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernier, R., Aaronson, B., & McPartland, J. (2013). The role of imitation in the observed heterogeneity in EEG mu rhythm in autism and typical development. Brain and Cognition, 82(1), 69–75.Google Scholar
  16. Bernier, R., Dawson, G., Webb, S., & Murias, M. (2007). EEG mu rhythm and imitation impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Brain and Cognition, 64(3), 228–237.Google Scholar
  17. Bird, G., & Cook, R. (2013). Mixed emotions: The contribution of alexithymia to the emotional symptoms of autism. Translational Psychiatry, 3(7), E285.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Bird, V., Premkumar, P., Kendall, T., Whittington, C., Mitchell, J., & Kuipers, E. (2010). Early intervention services, cognitive-behavioural therapy and family intervention in early psychosis: Systematic review. The British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science, 197(5), 350–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bishop, S. L., Richler, J., & Lord, C. (2006). Association between restricted and repetitiv behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders. Child Neuropsychology, 12(4–5), 247–267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bishop, S. L., Hus, V., Duncan, A., Huerta, M., Gotham, K., Pickles, A., ... Lord, C. (2013). Subcategories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(6), 1287–1297.Google Scholar
  21. Black, M. H., Chen, N. T., Iyer, K. K., Lipp, O. V., Bölte, S., Falkmer, M., ... Girdler, S. (2017). Mechanisms of facial emotion recognition in autism spectrum disorders: Insights from eye tracking and electroencephalography. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 80, 488–515.Google Scholar
  22. Bleil Walters, J., Hughes, T. L., Sutton, L. R., Marshall, S. N., Crothers, L. M., Lehman, C., Paserba, D., Talkington, V., Taormina, R., & Huang, A. (2013). Maltreatment and depression in adolescent sexual offenders with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 22(1), 72–89.Google Scholar
  23. Bolton, P. F., Carcani-Rathwell, I., Hutton, J., Goode, S., Howlin, P., & Rutter, M. (2011). Epilepsy in autism: Features and correlates. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198(4), 289–294.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.109.076877.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Boucher, J. (2012). Research review: Structural language in autistic spectrum disorder – Characteristics and causes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(3), 219–233.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02508.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Boucher, J., Lewis, V., & Collis, G. (1998). Familiar face and voice matching and recognition in children with autism. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 39(2), 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boucher, J., Mayes, A., & Bigham, S. (2012). Memory in autistic spectrum disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 138(3), 458–496.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Boyd, B. A., Conroy, M. A., Mancil, G. R., Nakao, T., & Alter, P. J. (2007). Effects of circumscribed interests on the social behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(8), 1550–1561.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brenner, J., Pan, Z., Mazefsky, C., Smith, K., & Gabriels, R. (2017). Behavioral symptoms of reported abuse in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in inpatient settings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 07 June 2017.Google Scholar
  29. Buck, T. R., Viskochil, J., Farley, M., Coon, H., McMahon, W. M., Morgan, J., & Bilder, D. A. (2014). Psychiatric comorbidity and medication use in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(12), 3063–3071.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Buie, T., Campbell, D. B., Fuchs, G. J., Furuta, G. T., Levy, J., Vandewater, J., ... Winter, H. (2010). Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: A consensus report. Pediatrics, 125(1), S1–18.Google Scholar
  31. Chalfant, A. M., Rapee, R., & Carroll, L. (2007). Treating anxiety disorders in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: A controlled trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(10), 1842–1857.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Christensen, D. L., Baio, J., Braun, K. V., Bilder, D., Charles, J., Constantino, J. N., ... Yeargin-Allsopp, M. (2016a). Prevalence and characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder among children aged 8 years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012. MMWR Surveill Summaries, 65(3), 1–23.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6503a1
  33. Christensen, D. L., Bilder, D. A., Zahorodny, W., Pettygrove, S., Durkin, M. S., Fitzgerald, R. T., et al. (2016b). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among 4-year-old children in the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 37(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
  34. Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1996). A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: Initial findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 42–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1998). Interventions for sexually abused children: Initial treatment outcome findings. Child Maltreatment, 3(1), 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (2008). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for children and parents. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 13(4), 158–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  38. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (Eds.). (2012). Trauma-focused CBT for children and adolescents: Treatment applications. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  39. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2017). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Cook, E. H., Kieffer, J. E., Charak, D. A., & Leventhal, B. L. (1993). Autistic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(6), 1292–1294.Google Scholar
  41. Cook, R., Brewer, R., Shah, P., & Bird, G. (2013). Alexithymia, not autism, predicts poor recognition of emotional facial expressions. Psychological Science, 24(5), 723–732.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cooper, R. A., Richter, F. R., Bays, P. M., Plaisted-Grant, K. C., Baron-Cohen, S., & Simons, J. S. (2017). Reduced hippocampal functional connectivity during episodic memory retrieval in autism. Cerebral Cortex, 27(2), 888–902.Google Scholar
  43. Copeland, W., Keeler, G., Angold, A., & Costello, E. (2007). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(5), 577–584.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Corbett, B. A., Mendoza, S., Wegelin, J., Carmean, V., & Levine, S. (2008). Variable cortisol circadian rhythms in children with autism and anticipatory stress. Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, 33(3), 227–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Corbett, B. A., Shupp, C. W., Simon, D., Ryan, N., & Mendoza, S. (2010). Elevated cortisol during play is associated with age and social engagement in children with autism. Molecular Autism, 1(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Croen, L., Grether, J., Yoshida, C., Odouli, R., & Van de Water, J. (2005). Maternal autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergies, and childhood autism spectrum disorders: A case-control study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(2), 151–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Croen, L. A., Grether, J. K., Yoshida, C. K., Odouli, R., & Hendrick, V. (2011). Antidepressant use during pregnancy and childhood autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(11), 1104–1112.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Danial, J., & Wood, J. (2013). Cognitive behavioral therapy for children with autism: Review and considerations for future research. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 34(9), 702–715.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dawson, G., Meltzoff, A. N., Osterling, J., Rinaldi, J., & Brown, E. (1998). Children with autism fail to orient to naturally occurring social stimuli. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(6), 479–485.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dawson, G., Carver, L., Meltzoff, A. N., Panagiotides, H., McPartland, J., & Webb, S. J. (2002). Neural correlates of face and object recognition in young children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, and typical development. Child Development, 73(3), 700–717.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., & Liaw, J. (2004). Early social attention impairments in autism: Social orienting, joint attention, and attention to distress. Developmental Psychology, 40(2), 271–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Dawson, G., Webb, S., & McPartland, J. (2005). Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: Insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27(3), 403–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., ... & Varley, J. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: The early start Denver model. Pediatrics, 125(1), 17–23.Google Scholar
  54. de Bruin, E. I., Ferdinand, R. F., Meester, S., De Nijs, P. F. A., & Verheij, F. (2007). High rates of psychiatric co-morbidity in PDD-NOS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(5), 877–886.Google Scholar
  55. Delano, M., & Snell, M. (2006). The effects of social stories on the social engagement of children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(1), 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Foulkes, L., Bird, G., Gokcen, E., McCrory, E., & Viding, E. (2015). Common and distinct impacts of autistic traits and alexithymia on social reward. PLoS One, 10(4), e0121018.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2006). The neural basis of mentalizing. Neuron, 50(4), 531–534.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gaylord-Ross, R. J., Haring, T. G., Breen, C., & Pitts-Conway, V. (1984). The training and generalization of social interaction skills with autistic youth. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17(2), 229–247.Google Scholar
  60. Gidaya, N., Lee, B., Burstyn, I., Michael, Y., Newschaffer, C., & Mortensen, E. (2016). In utero exposure to beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist drugs and risk for autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 137(2), E20151316.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gilbert-MacLeod, C. A., Craig, K. D., Rocha, E. M., & Mathias, M. D. (2000). Everyday pain responses in children with and without developmental delays. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 25(5), 301–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gilman, S. R., Iossifov, I., Levy, D., Ronemus, M., Wigler, M., & Vitkup, D. (2011). Rare de novo variants associated with autism implicate a large functional network of genes involved in formation and function of synapses. Neuron, 70(5), 898–907.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Green, J., Leadbitter, K., Kay, C., & Sharma, K. (2016). Autism spectrum disorder in children adopted after early care breakdown. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(4), 1392–1402.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Guthrie, W., Swineford, L. B., Nottke, C., & Wetherby, A. M. (2013). Early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: stability and change in clinical diagnosis and symptom presentation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(5), 582–590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Happé, F., & Booth, R. (2008). The power of the positive: Revisiting weak coherence in autism spectrum disorders. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(1), 50–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Happé, F., & Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(1), 5–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hatton, C., & Emerson, E. (2004). The relationship between life events and psychopathology amongst children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 17(2), 109-117Google Scholar
  68. Hayashi, M., Kato, M., Igarashi, K., & Kashima, H. (2008). Superior fluid intelligence in children with Asperger’s disorder. Brain and Cognition, 66(3), 306–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Heaton, P., & Wallace, G. (2004). Annotation: The savant syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 899–911.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.t01-1-00284.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hibbard, R. A., & Desch, L. W. (2007). Maltreatment of children with disabilities. Pediatrics, 119(5), 1018–1025.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hileman, C. M., Henderson, H., Mundy, P., Newell, L., & Jaime, M. (2011). Developmental and individual differences on the P1 and N170 ERP components in children with and without autism. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36(2), 214–236.Google Scholar
  72. Hill, E. (2004). Executive dysfunction in autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(1), 26–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hill, E., Berthoz, S., & Frith, U. (2004). Brief report: Cognitive processing of own emotions in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder and in their relatives. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(2), 229–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hong, E. R., Neely, L., & Lund, E. M. (2015). Addressing bullying of students with autism: Suggestions for families and educators. Intervention in School and Clinic, 50(3), 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Howlin, P. (2003). Outcome in high-functioning adults with autism with and without early language delays: Implications for the differentiation between autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(1), 3–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Howlin, P. (2012). Understanding savant skills in autism. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 54(6), 484.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Idring, S., Magnusson, C., Lundberg, M., Ek, M., Rai, D., Svensson, A., ... Lee, B. (2014). Parental age and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: Findings from a Swedish population-based cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43(1), 107–115.Google Scholar
  78. Jacquemont, S., Bradley, P. C., Hersch, M., Duyzend, M. H., Krumm, N., Bergmann, S., ... Eichler, E. E. (2014). A higher mutational burden in females supports a “female protective model” in neurodevelopmental disorders. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 94(3), 415–425.Google Scholar
  79. Johnson, S., Hollis, C., Kochhar, P., Hennessy, E., Wolke, D., & Marlow, N. (2010). Autism spectrum disorders in extremely preterm children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 156(4), 525–531.e2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Joshi, G., Wozniak, J., Petty, C., Martelon, M., Fried, R., Bolfek, A., ... Biederman, J. (2013). Psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in a clinically referred population of adults with autism spectrum disorders: A comparative study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(6), 1314–1325.Google Scholar
  81. Kana, R., Maximo, J., Williams, D., Keller, T., Schipul, S., Cherkassky, V., .... Just, M. (2015). Aberrant functioning of the theory-of-mind network in children and adolescents with autism. Molecular Autism, 6, 59.Google Scholar
  82. Kanne, S. M., & Mazurek, M. O. (2011). Aggression in children and adolescents with ASD: Prevalence and risk factors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(7), 926–937.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kasari, C., & Rotheram-Fuller, E. (2007). Peer relationships of children with autism: Challenges and interventions. In E. Hollander & E. Anagnostou (Eds.), Clinical manual for the treatment of autism (pp. 235–257). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  84. Kern, J. K., Trivedi, M. H., Garver, C. R., Grannemann, B. D., Andrews, A. A., Savla, J. S., Johnson, D. G., Mehta, J. A., & Schroeder, J. L. (2006). The pattern of sensory processing abnormalities in autism. Autism, 10(5), 480–494.Google Scholar
  85. Kerns, C. M., Newschaffer, C. J., & Berkowitz, S. J. (2015). Traumatic childhood events and autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(11), 3475–3486.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kim, S. H., Paul, R., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Lord, C. (2014). Language and communication in autism. In F. R. Volkmar, S. Rogers, R. Paul, & K. A. Pelphrey (Eds.), Volume 1: Diagnosis, development, and brain mechanisms (4th ed., pp. 230–262). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  87. King, R., & Desaulnier, C. (2011). Commentary: Complex post-traumatic stress disorder: Implications for individuals with autism spectrum disorders -- part II. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 17(1), 47–59.Google Scholar
  88. Klin, A., Sparrow, S. S., De Bildt, A., Cicchetti, D. V., Cohen, D. J., & Volkmar, F. R. (1999). A normed study of face recognition in autism and related disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29(6), 499–508.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D. (2002). Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(9), 809–816.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Klin, A., McPartland, J. C., & Volkmar, F. R. (2005). Asperger syndrome. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed., pp. 88–125). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  91. Knight, V., Sartini, E., & Spriggs, A. D. (2015). Evaluating visual activity schedules as evidence-based practice for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(1), 157–178.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2201-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kohane, I. S., McMurry, A., Weber, G., MacFadden, D., Rappaport, L., Kunkel, L., et al. (2012). The co-morbidity burden of children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders. PLoS One, 7(4), e33224.Google Scholar
  93. Koning, C., Magill-Evans, J., Volden, J., & Dick, B. (2013). Efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy-based social skills intervention for school-aged boys with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(10), 1282–1290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Krakow, B., Hollifield, M., Johnston, L., Koss, M., Schrader, R., Warner, T. D., .... Prince, H. (2001). Imagery rehearsal therapy for chronic nightmares in sexual assault survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 286(5), 537–545.Google Scholar
  95. Kroese, B. S., & Thomas, G. (2006). Treating chronic nightmares of sexual assault survivors with an intellectual disability -two descriptive case studies. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19(1), 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kumar, S. L. (2013). Examining the characteristics of visuospatial information processing in individuals with high-functioning autism. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 86(2), 147–156.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Lai, M.-C., Lombardo, M. V., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2014). Autism. The Lancet, 383(9920), 896–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lecavalier, L. (2006). Behavioral and emotional problems in young people with pervasive developmental disorders: Relative prevalence, effects of subject characteristics, and empirical classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(8), 1101–1114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Lemmon, V. A., & Mizes, J. S. (2002). Effectiveness of exposure therapy: A case study of posttraumatic stress disorder and mental retardation. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 9(4), 317–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Levy, S. E., Mandell, D. S., & Schultz, R. T. (2009). Autism. The Lancet, 374(9701), 1627–1638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Levy, D., Ronemus, M., Yamrom, B., Lee, Y., Leotta, A., Kendall, J.,. . .Wigler, M. (2011). Rare de novo and transmitted copy-number variation in autistic spectrum disorders. Neuron, 70(5), 886–897.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Leyfer, O. T., Folstein, S. E., Bacalman, S., Davis, N. O., Dinh, E., Morgan, J., ... Lainhart, J. E. (2006). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 849–861.Google Scholar
  103. Lind, S., & Bowler, D. (2010). Episodic memory and episodic future thinking in adults with autism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(4), 896–905.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Livanis, A., Almodovar, D., & Skolnik, E. (2017). Autism spectrum and social pragmatic language disorders. In S. Goldstein & M. DeVries (Eds.), Handbook of DSM-5 disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 377–398). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mandell, D. S., Listerud, J., Levy, S. E., & Pinto-Martin, J. A. (2002). Race differences in the age at diagnosis among Medicaid-eligible children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(12), 1447–1453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Mandell, D. S., Novak, M. M., & Zubritsky, C. D. (2005). Factors associated with age of diagnosis among children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 116(6), 1480–1486.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Mandell, D., Lawer, L., Branch, K., Brodkin, E., Healey, K., Witalec, R., ... Gur, R. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of autism in a state psychiatric hospital. Autism, 16(6), 557–567.Google Scholar
  108. Mansell, S., Sobsey, D., & Moskal, R. (1998). Clinical findings among sexually abused children with and without developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 36(1), 12–22.Google Scholar
  109. March, J. S., Amaya-Jackson, L., Murray, M. C., & Schulte, A. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder after a single-incident stressor. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(6), 585–593.Google Scholar
  110. Matson, J. L. (Ed.). (2016). Handbook of assessment and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  111. Mattila, M.-L., Hurtig, T., Haapsamo, H., Jussila, K., Kuusikko-Gauffin, S., Kielinen, M., et al. (2010). Comorbid psychiatric disorders associated with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism: A community- and clinic-based study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(9), 1080–1093.Google Scholar
  112. McDermott, S., Zhou, L., & Mann, J. (2008). Injury treatment among children with autism or pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(4), 626–633.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. McElhanon, B. O., McCracken, C., Karpen, S., & Sharp, W. G. (2014). Gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 133(5), 872–883.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. McNally Keehn, R. H., Lincoln, A. J., Brown, M. Z., & Chavira, D. A. (2013). The coping cat program for children with anxiety and autism spectrum disorder: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 43(1), 57–67.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1541-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. McPartland, J., Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., Panagiotides, H., & Carver, L. J. (2004). Event-related brain potentials reveal anomalies in temporal processing of faces in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(7), 1235–1245.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00318.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Mehtar, M., & Mukaddes, N. M. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder in individuals with diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 539–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Meilleur, A. A. S., Jelenic, P., & Mottron, L. (2015). Prevalence of clinically and empirically defined talents and strengths in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(5), 1354–1367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Mevissen-Renckens, E. H. M., & de Jongh, A. (2010). PTSD and its treatment in people with intellectual disabilities: A review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(3), 308–316.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.12.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Meyer, B. J., Gardiner, J. M., & Bowler, D. M. (2014). Directed forgetting in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(10), 2514–2524.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Minshew, N. J., Meyer, J., & Goldstein, G. (2002). Abstract reasoning in autism: A disassociation between concept formation and concept identification. Neuropsychology, 16(3), 327–334.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Myers, S. M., & Johnson, C. P. (2007). Management of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120(5), 1162–1182.Google Scholar
  122. Myles, B. S., & Southwick, J. (1999). Asperger Syndrome and difficult moments: Practical solutions for tantrums, rage, and meltdowns. Autism Asperger Publishing, P.O. Box 23173, Shawnee Mission, KS.Google Scholar
  123. Nemiah, J. C., Freyberger, H., & Sifneos, P. E. (1976). Alexithymia: A view of the psychosomatic process. In O. W. Hill (Ed.), Modern trends in psychosomatic medicine (Vol. 3, pp. 430–439). London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  124. Newschaffer, C. J., Croen, L. A., Daniels, J., Giarelli, E., Grether, J. K., Levy, S. E., ... Windham, G. C. (2007). The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders. Annual Review of Public Health, 28, 235–258.Google Scholar
  125. Ornoy, A., Weinstein-Fudim, L., & Ergaz, Z. (2015). Prenatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reproductive Toxicology, 56, 155–169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Osterling, J., & Dawson, G. (1994). Early recognition of children with autism: A study of first birthday home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(3), 247–257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B. F., & Rogers, S. J. (1990). Are there emotion perception deficits in young autistic children? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31(3), 343–361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Ozonoff, S., Young, G. S., Carter, A., Messinger, D., Yirmiya, N., Zwaigenbaum, L., ... Stone, W. L. (2011). Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: A baby siblings research consortium study. Pediatrics, 128(3), E488–E495.Google Scholar
  129. Parker, D., & Kamps, D. (2011). Effects of task analysis and self-monitoring for children with autism in multiple social settings. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 26(3), 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Pelphrey, K. A., Morris, J. P., McCarthy, G., & LaBar, K. S. (2007). Perception of dynamic changes in facial affect and identity in autism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(2), 140–149.  https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsm010.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Pennington, B., & Ozonoff, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(1), 51–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Polimeni, M. A., Richdale, A. L., & Francis, A. J. P. (2005). A survey of sleep problems in autism, Asperger’s disorder and typically developing children. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(4), 260–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(4), 515–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Raz, R., Roberts, A., Lyall, K., Hart, J., Just, A., Laden, F., & Weisskopf, M. (2015). Autism spectrum disorder and particulate matter air pollution before, during, and after pregnancy: A nested case-control analysis within the Nurses’ Health Study II Cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives (Online), 123(3), 264–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Reiss, S., Levitan, G., & Szyszko, J. (1982). Emotional disturbance and mental retardation: Diagnostic overshadowing. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86(6), 567–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Reiter, S., Bryen, D. N., & Shachar, I. (2007). Adolescents with intellectual disabilities as victims of abuse. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 11(4), 371–387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Richdale, A. L., & Schreck, K. A. (2009). Sleep problems in autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, nature, & possible biopsychosocial aetiologies. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 13(6), 403–411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Rieffe, C., Terwogt, M. M., & Kotronopoulou, K. (2007). Awareness of single and multiple emotions in high-functioning children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(3), 455–465.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rimland, B. (1978). Savant capabilities of autistic children and their cognitive implications. In G. Serban (Ed.), Cognitive defects in the development of mental illness (pp. 43–65). Oxford, England: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  140. Risch, N., Hoffmann, T. J., Anderson, M., Croen, L. A., Grether, J. K., & Windham, G. C. (2014). Familial recurrence of autism spectrum disorder: Evaluating genetic and environmental contributions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(11), 1206–1213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Rodgers, J., Glod, M., Connolly, B., & McConachie, H. (2012). The relationship between anxiety and repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(11), 2404–2409.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Rogers, S. J., Hepburn, S., & Wehner, E. (2003). Parent reports of sensory symptoms in toddlers with autism and those with other developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(6), 631–642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Ropar, D., & Peebles, D. (2007). Sorting preference in children with autism: The dominance of concrete features. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(2), 270–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Rose, V., Trembath, D., Keen, D., & Paynter, J. (2016). The proportion of minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder in a community-based early intervention programme. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(5), 464–477.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Rutter, M., Andersen-Wood, L., Beckett, C., Bredenkamp, D., Castle, J., Groothues, C., ... O’Connor, T. G. (1999). Quasi-autistic patterns following severe early global privation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(4), 537–549.Google Scholar
  146. Sasson, N. J., Elison, J. T., Turner-Brown, L. M., Dichter, G. S., & Bodfish, J. W. (2011). Brief report: Circumscribed attention in young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(2), 242–247.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Schaefer, G. (2016). Clinical genetic aspects of ASD Spectrum disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(2), 180.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Scheeringa, M. S., Salloum, A., Arnberger, R. A., Weems, C. F., Amaya-Jackson, L., & Cohen, J. A. (2007). Feasibility and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in preschool children: Two case reports. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(4), 631–636.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Scheeringa, M. S., Weems, C. F., Cohen, J. A., Amaya-Jackson, L., & Guthrie, D. (2011). Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in three-through six year-old children: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(8), 853–860.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Schopler, E., & Mesibov, G. B. (Eds.). (2013). Learning and cognition in autism. Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  151. Shalom, D. B., Mostofsky, S. H., Hazlett, R. L., Goldberg, M. C., Landa, R. J., Faran, Y., ... Hoehn-Saric, R. (2006). Normal physiological emotions but differences in expression of conscious feelings in children with high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(3), 395–400.Google Scholar
  152. Shulman, C., Yirmiya, N., & Greenbaum, C. W. (1995). From categorization to classification: A comparison among individuals with autism, mental retardation, and normal development. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 601–609.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Silani, G., Bird, G., Brindley, R., Singer, T., Frith, C., & Frith, U. (2008). Levels of emotional awareness and autism: An fMRI study. Social Neuroscience, 3(2), 97–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 921–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sofronoff, K., Attwood, T., & Hinton, S. (2005). A randomised controlled trial of CBT intervention for anxiety in children with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(11), 1152–1160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Sofronoff, K., Attwood, T., Hinton, S., & Levin, I. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for anger management in children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(7), 1203–1214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Solomon, M., Bauminger, N., & Rogers, S. J. (2011). Abstract reasoning and friendship in high functioning preadolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(1), 32–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Souders, M., Mason, T., Valladares, O., Bucan, M., Levy, S., Mandell, D., ... Pinto-Martin, J. (2009). Sleep behaviors and sleep quality in children with autism spectrum disorders. Sleep, 32(12), 1566–1578.Google Scholar
  159. Soulières, I., Dawson, M., Samson, F., Barbeau, E. B., Sahyoun, C. P., Strangman, G. E., . . . Mottron, L. (2009). Enhanced visual processing contributes to matrix reasoning in autism. Human Brain Mapping, 30(12), 4082–4107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. South, M., Ozonoff, S., & McMahon, W. M. (2005). Repetitive behavior profiles in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(2), 145–158.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Spratt, E. G., Nicholas, J. S., Brady, K. T., Carpenter, L. A., Hatcher, C. R., Meekins, K. A., et al. (2012). Enhanced cortisol response to stress in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(1), 75–81.Google Scholar
  162. Stadnick, N., Chlebowski, C., & Brookman-Frazee, L. (2017). Caregiver-teacher concordance of challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder served in community mental health settings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(6), 1780–1790.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Steensel, F., Bögels, J., & Perrin, A. (2011). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14(3), 302–317.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Sterzing, P., Shattuck, P., Narendorf, S., Wagner, M., & Cooper, B. (2012). Bullying involvement and autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence and correlates of bullying involvement among adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166(11), 1058–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Stith, S. M., Liu, T., Davies, L. C., Boykin, E. L., Alder, M. C., Harris, J. M., Som, A., McPherson, M., & Dees, J. (2009). Risk factors in child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(1), 13–29.Google Scholar
  166. Storch, E. A., Sulkowski, M. L., Nadeau, J., Lewin, A. B., Arnold, E. B., Mutch, P. J., ... Murphy, T. K. (2013). The phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(10), 2450–2459.Google Scholar
  167. Sullivan, P. M., & Knutson, J. F. (2000). Maltreatment and disabilities: A population-based epidemiological study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 1257–1273.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00190-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Sung, M., Ooi, Y. P., Goh, T. J., Pathy, P., Fung, D. S., Ang, R. P., et al. (2011). Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized controlled trial. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 42(6), 634–649.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-011-0238-1.
  169. Tager-Flusberg, H. (2007). Evaluating the theory-of-mind hypothesis of autism. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(6), 311–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Tchaconas, A., & Adesman, A. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: A pediatric overview and update. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 25(1), 130–144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Tissot, C., & Evans, R. (2003). Visual teaching strategies for children with autism. Early Child Development and Care, 173(4), 425–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Toichi, M., & Kamio, Y. (2003). Long-term memory in high-functioning autism: Controversy on episodic memory in autism reconsidered. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(2), 151–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Tuchman, R., & Rapin, I. (2002). Epilepsy in autism. Lancet Neurology, 1(6), 352–358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Valenti, M., Ciprietti, T., Egidio, C., Gabrielli, D., Masedu, M., Tomassini, F., & Sorge, A. (2012). Adaptive response of children and adolescents with autism to the 2009 earthquake in L’Aquila, Italy. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(6), 954–960.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Valicenti-McDermott, M., Hottinger, K., Sejo, R., & Shulman, L. (2012). Age at diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Pediatrics, 161(3), 554–556.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Volden, J., Coolican, J., Garon, N., White, J., & Bryson, S. (2009). Brief report: Pragmatic language in autism spectrum disorder: Relationships to measures of ability and disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(2), 388–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Volk, H., Lurmann, F., Penfold, B., Hertz-Picciotto, I., & Mcconnell, R. (2013). Traffic-related air pollution, particulate matter, and autism. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(1), 71–77.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. Watling, R. L., Deitz, J., & White, O. (2001). Comparison of Sensory Profile scores of young children with and without autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55(4), 416–423.Google Scholar
  179. Webb, S. J., Neuhaus, E., & Faja, S. (2017). Face perception and learning in autism spectrum disorders. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(5), 970–986.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. White, S. J., Frith, U., Rellecke, J., Al-Noor, Z., & Gilbert, S. J. (2014a). Autistic adolescents show atypical activation of the brain's mentalizing system even without a prior history of mentalizing problems. Neuropsychologia, 56, 17–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.12.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. White, S. W., Mazefsky, C. A., Dichter, G. S., Chiu, P. H., Richey, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2014b). Social-cognitive, physiological and neural mechanisms underlying emotion regulation impairments: Understanding anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 39, 22–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  182. Wigham, S., Hatton, C., & Taylor, J. L. (2011). The Lancaster and Northgate trauma scales (LANTS): The development and psychometric properties of a measure of trauma for people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 32(6), 2651–2659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Williams, B. T., & Gray, K. M. (2013). The relationship between emotion recognition ability and social skills in young children with autism. Autism, 17(6), 762–768.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception. Cognition, 13(1), 103–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Wong, C., Odom, S. L., Hume, K., Cox, A. W., Fettig, A., Kucharczyk, S., ... Schultz, T. R. (2015). Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with autism spectrum disorder: A comprehensive review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(7), 1951–1966.Google Scholar
  186. Wood, J. J., & Gadow, K. D. (2010). Exploring the nature and function of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17, 281–292.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.2010.01220.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wood, J. J., Drahota, A., Sze, K., Har, K., Chiu, A., & Langer, D. A. (2009). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(3), 224–234.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Wood, J. J., Ehrenreich-May, J., Alessandri, M., Fujii, C., Renno, P., Laugeson, E., ... Storch, E. A. (2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and clinical anxiety: A randomized, controlled trial. Behavior Therapy, 46(1), 7–19.Google Scholar
  189. Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Rice, C., Karapurkar, T., Doernberg, N., Boyle, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. JAMA, 289(1), 49–55.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.1.49.
  190. Yehuda, R. (2001). Biology of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 41–46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica L. Peterson
    • 1
  • Rachel K. Earl
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emily A. Fox
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ruqian Ma
    • 3
  • Ghina Haidar
    • 3
  • Micah Pepper
    • 2
  • Lucy Berliner
    • 4
  • Arianne S. Wallace
    • 2
  • Raphael A. Bernier
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Seattle Children’s Autism CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.College of Education and Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.University of Washington MedicineSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations