Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 457–472 | Cite as

Comparing the Effectiveness of EMDR and TF-CBT for Children and Adolescents: a Meta-Analysis

  • Jennifer H. LeweyEmail author
  • Christopher L. Smith
  • Brandi Burcham
  • Nia L. Saunders
  • Dina Elfallal
  • Siobhan K. O’Toole


Efficacy of EMDR and TF-CBT for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) was explored through meta-analysis. A comprehensive search yielded 494 studies of children and adolescents with PTSS who received treatment with these evidence-based therapeutic modalities. Thirty total studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall Cohen’s d was small (−0.359) and statistically significant (p < 0.05), indicating EMDR and TF-CBT are effective in treating PTSS. Major findings posit TF-CBT is marginally more effective than EMDR; those with sub-clinical PTSS responded more favorably in treatment than those with PTSD; and greater reductions in PTSS were observed with presence of comorbidity in diagnosis. Assessment of publication bias with Classic fail-safe N revealed it would take 457 nonsignificant studies to nullify these findings.


Eye movement and desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) Effectiveness Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Meta-analysis Children Adolescents 



The authors would first like to posthumously thank our professor, advisor, mentor, and co-author, Dr. Siobhan K. O’Toole, for her guidance and tutelage, as well as sharing with us her passion for meta-analysis. The authors would like to thank Jennie L. Bedsworth, LCSW, who serves as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in the state of Missouri, for her knowledge and expertise in trauma-focused therapies for vulnerable populations that have significantly informed our discussion for this research endeavor. And finally, the authors would like to thank Colt J. Blunt, Psy.D., L.P., for his thoughtful editing of this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Disclosure of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Standards and Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation [institutional and national] and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.


*References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer H. Lewey
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Christopher L. Smith
    • 3
    • 4
  • Brandi Burcham
    • 1
  • Nia L. Saunders
    • 1
  • Dina Elfallal
    • 1
  • Siobhan K. O’Toole
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Psychology DepartmentCalifornia School of Professional Psychology at Alliant International UniversityFresnoUSA
  2. 2.Direct Care and Treatment - Forensic Services (DCT-FS)Minnesota Department of Human Services (DHS)St. PeterUSA
  3. 3.Clinical Psychology DepartmentCalifornia School of Professional Psychology at Alliant International UniversitySan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Youth Opportunities Upheld, Inc. (YOU, Inc.)WorchesterUSA

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