Cyber Victimization and Depression among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Buffering Effects of Parental Mediation and Social Support
- 219 Downloads
The purpose of the present study was to examine the buffering effect of parental mediation of technology use and social support from parents on the association between cyber victimization and depression, assessed over one year. Participants were 113 7th through 9th graders from the Midwestern United States (age ranged from 12 to 17 years old; 86% were male) who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. They completed questionnaires on their perceptions of parental mediation of technology use, perceived social support from parents, and self-reported face-to-face and cyber victimization and depression at Wave 1. One year later, at Wave 2, they completed a questionnaire on their depression. Results indicated that the associations between cyber victimization and depression were more negative at higher levels of perceived parental technology mediation and social support, while these associations were more negative at lower levels of these variables, after controlling for face-to-face victimization and Wave 1 depression.
KeywordsCyberbullying Cyber aggression Autistic disorder Asperger syndrome Pervasive developmental disorder
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation [institutional and national] and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Parental permission and assent was obtained from all participants included in the study.
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.
- Arrizabalaga-Crespo, C., Aierbe-Barandiaran, A., & Medrano-Samaniego, C. (2010). Internet uses and parental mediation in adolescents with ADHD. Revista Latina de Comunicacion, 65, 561–571.Google Scholar
- Chng, G. S., Liau, A., Khoo, A., & Li, D. (2014). Parental mediation and cyberbullying – a longitudinal study. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine, 12, 98–102.Google Scholar
- Cohen, S., Underwood, L., & Gottlieb, B. (Eds.). (2000). Social support measurement and interventions: a guide for health and social scientists. Oxford: New York.Google Scholar
- Davidson, L. M., & Demaray, M. K. (2007). Social support as a moderator between victimization and internalizing-externalizing distress from bullying. School Psychology Review, 36(3), 383–405.Google Scholar
- Dehue, F., Bolman, C., Vollink, T., & Pouwelse, M. (2012). Cyberbullying and traditional bullying in relation to adolescents’ perceptions of parenting. Journal of Cyber Therapy & Rehabilitation, 5(1), 25–34.Google Scholar
- Didden, R., Scholte, R. H. J., Korzilius, H., De Moor, J. M. H., Vermeulen, A., O’Reilly, M., et al. (2009). Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12(3), 146–151. doi: 10.1080/17518420902971356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hassett, M., Lowder, C., & Rutan, D.. (1992). Use of computer network bulletin board systems by disabled persons. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Application in Medical Care, 151–155.Google Scholar
- Hu, H., Chou, W., & Yen, C. (2016). Anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the roles of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder, and bullying involvement. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 32(2), 103–109. doi: 10.1016/j.kjms.2016.01.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2011). Risks and safety on the internet: the perspective of European children. London: LSE UK: EU Kids Online.Google Scholar
- Malecki, C. K., Demaray, M. K., & Elliot, S. N. (2000). The child and adolescent social support scale. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University.Google Scholar
- Nikken, P., & de Haan, J. (2015). Guiding young children’s internet use at home: problems that parents experience in their parental mediation and the need for parenting support. CyberPsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 9(3).Google Scholar
- Rideout, V. J., Roberts, D. F., & Foehr, U. G. (2005). Generation M: media in the lives of 8–18-year-olds: Executive summary. Menlo Park: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.Google Scholar
- Rothon, C., Head, J., Klineberg, E., & Stansfeld, S. (2011). Can social support protect bullied adolescents from adverse outcomes? A prospective study on the effects of bullying on the educational achievement and mental health of adolescents at secondary schools in East London. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 579–588. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence. 2010.02.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Smokowski, P. R., Evans, C. B., & Cotter, K. L. (2014). The differential impacts of episodic, chronic, and cumulative physical bullying and cyberbullying: the effects of victimization on the school experiences, social support, and mental health of rural adolescents. Violence and Victims, 29(6), 1029–1046.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soper, D. S. (2013). Interaction! Available: http://www.danielsoper.com/Interaction/
- Talves, K., & Kalmus, V. (2015). Gendered mediation of children’s internet use: a keyhole for looking into changing socialization practices. CyberPsychology. Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace. 9(4).Google Scholar
- Wright, M. F. (2015). Cyber victimization and adjustment difficulties: the mediation of Chinese and American adolescents’ digital technology usage. CyberPsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research in Cyberspace. 9(1). doi: 10.5817/CP2015-1-7
- Wright, M. F. (2016). Cyber victimization and substance use among adolescents: the moderation of perceived social support. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions. doi: 10.1080/1533256X.2016.1143371.
- Wright, M. F. (2017). The buffering effect of parental mediation in the relationship between adolescents’ cyberbullying victimization and adjustment difficulties. Child Abuse Review, 25(5), 345–358. doi: 10.1002/car.2448.
- Zedyk, S. M., Rodriguez, G., Tipton, L. A., Baker, B. A., & Blacher, J. (2014). Bullying of youth with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, or typical development: victim and parent perspectives. Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder, 8(9), 1173–1183. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2014.06.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar