Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 277–282 | Cite as

Bullying as an Expression of Intolerant Schemas

  • Alan K. GoodboyEmail author
  • Matthew M. Martin
  • Christine E. Rittenour
Original Article


The purpose of this study was to assess students’ (N = 186) retrospective accounts of their bullying behaviors (in middle and high school), alongside their current, self-admitted intolerant schemas. Amidst intolerant schemas of sexism, ageism, classism, racism, religious intolerance, and sexual prejudice, all were correlated positively with the victimization of others in school (i.e., relational-verbal bullying, cyberbullying, physical bullying, culture-based bullying). Sexism yielded the strongest associations with bullying, and classism yielded the weakest. Men were more likely to report intolerant schemas and bullying. These findings add to existent theories connecting the cognitive and communicative manifestations of prejudice.


Bullying Sexism Ageism Classism Racism Religious intolerance Sexual prejudice 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan K. Goodboy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthew M. Martin
    • 1
  • Christine E. Rittenour
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Communication StudiesWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

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