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Allergo Journal International

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 58–66 | Cite as

Hypersensitivity reactions to modern antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs

  • Kathrin Scherer Hofmeier
  • Andreas J. Bircher
Review

Abstract

Anticoagulation and antiplatelet drugs are among the most commonly used medical drugs. In addition to the long-established heparins, hirudins, coumarins and antiplatelet drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid, numerous novel and predominantly synthetic pharmacologic agents have come onto the market in recent years. These new agents act at various sites in coagulation and have significantly broadened treatment options. Whilst immunological hypersensitivity reactions are on the whole rare, they have a considerable impact on patient management when they do occur. The present overview discusses the currently known hypersensitivity reactions to anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents, with particular attention to the newer substance classes including P2Y12 inhibitors, glycoprotein IIb/IIIb receptor antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors.

Keywords

thienopyridine GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists factor Xa inhibitor direkt thrombin inhibitors hyper sensitivity 

Abbreviations

AA

Arachidonic acid

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

ADR

Adverse drug reaction

AERD

Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease

AGEP

Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

ASA

Acetylsalicylic acid

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

COOH

Carboxyl group

CYP

Cytochrome P450

DILI

Drug induced liver injury

DRESS

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic systems

EMA

European Medicines Agency

Fab

Fragment antigen binding

FDA

US Food and Drug Administration

GP

Glycoprotein

HACA

Human antichimeric antibodies

HAMA

Human anti-murine antibodies

HIT

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

HMWH

High molecular weight heparin (unfractionated heparin)

Ig

Immunoglobulin

LMWH

Low molecular weight heparin

LT

Leukotriene

NSAID

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

PDE

Phosphodiesterase

PG

Prostaglandin

P2Y12

Adenosine receptor

SCAR

Severe cutaneous adverse reaction

TEN

Toxic epidermal necrolysis

TIA

Transient ischemic attack

T-R

Thromboxane receptor

TxA2

Thromboxane A2

WHO

World Health Organization

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Copyright information

© Urban & Vogel 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathrin Scherer Hofmeier
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andreas J. Bircher
    • 1
  1. 1.Allergy Unit, Department of DermatologyUniversity HospitalBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Allergy Unit Department of DermatologyUniversity Hospital BaselBaselSwitzerland

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