Serum C3 complement levels in ANCA associated vasculitis at diagnosis is a predictor of patient and renal outcome
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To determinate the prognostic significance of low serum C3 at the time of diagnosis of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV).
Our cohort included 75 consecutive patients with AAV diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2015. C3 levels were measured at the time of diagnosis. Patients were divided into two groups, those with low serum C3 levels (< 0.9 g/l) and those with normal serum C3 levels (0.9–1.8 g/l). We analysed association between serum C3 levels and both combined and singularly patient and renal survival (ESRD). Small number of relapsed patients did not allow for the statistical analysis to be performed as to weather the low serum C3 is associated with relapse rate in AAV patients.
Low serum C3 levels were significantly associated with worse combined end-point patient and renal survival (HR 3.079; 95% CI 1.231–7.701; p = 0.016), and on multivariate adjusted analysis association remained significant (HR 2.831; 95% CI 1.093–7.338; p = 0.032). For both end-points individually low serum C3 levels were significantly associated with poorer patient survival (HR 6.378; 95% CI 2.252–18.065; p < 0.001; on multivariate adjusted analysis HR 4.315 95% CI 1.350–13.799; p = 0.014) and renal survival (HR 3.207; 95% CI 1.040–9.830; p = 0.043; on multivariate adjusted analysis HR 3.679; 95% CI 1.144–11.827; p = 0.029). In our study there was no significant association between serological and patohistological phenotypes and serum C3 levels.
Lower serum C3 levels at the diagnosis is associated with poorer patient and renal outcomes in AAV patients.
KeywordsANCA Vasculitis C3 factor Complement Anti myeloperoxidase autoantibodies Anti proteinase-3 autoantibodies Prognostic factors
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Since this is a retrospective study formal consent is not required.
Conflict of interest
All of the authors: Matija Crnogorac, Ivica Horvatic, Patricia Kacinari, Danica Galesic Ljubanovic and Kresimir Galesic declare no conflict of interest.
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