Vitamin D status and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 1 diabetes
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In patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from 10 to 53% and contrasting evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may favor liver fat accumulation. Here, we investigated the association between vitamin D status and NAFLD in adults with T1D.
220 consecutive adult T1D patients on multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and not taking calcium or vitamin D supplements were included. Patient characteristics, 25(OH)D serum levels, and metabolic parameters were analyzed. Vitamin D status was defined as sufficiency ( ≥ 75 nmol/L; 30 ng/ml), insufficiency (50–75 nmol/L; 20–30 ng/ml), or deficiency ( < 50 nmol/L; 20 ng/ml). NAFLD was diagnosed at ultrasound examination and graded 0–3.
NAFLD was present in 57 patients (29.5%): 51 grade 1, 5 grade 2, and 1 grade 3. Median 25(OH)D levels were 53 nmol/L (IQR 38–70) in patients with NAFLD and 50 nmol/L (34–69) in patients without (p = 0.46). At multivariable analysis, NAFLD was not associated with 25(OH)D levels (p = 0.42) or vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.55), while BMI (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07–1.27) and serum triglycerides (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03) were independently associated with NAFLD.
Vitamin D status appears to have no link with low-grade NAFLD in patients with type 1 diabetes.
KeywordsType 1 diabetes Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Vitamin D Ultrasound
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing interests for this manuscript.
All procedures in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the Ethical Standards of the institutional and /or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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