Iodine supplementation in women of reproductive age: a survey of clinical practice among Italian gynecologists and midwives
Synthesis of maternal thyroid hormones, necessary for healthy development of central nervous system of the fetus, increases in pregnancy by approximately 50% because of several mechanism that, since the earliest phase modify thyroid homeostasis (e.g,. increased levels of serum thyroxine-binding globulin due to the increase in estrogen levels, stimulation of TSH receptors by human chorionic gonadotropin, increased urinary loss of iodine). In addition, because of the increased renal iodine excretion and fetal iodine need (after the 18th week of gestation), dietary iodine requirements are higher in pregnancy than they are for non-pregnant adult.
Thus, for both maternal and fetal/neonatal regular thyroid function, it is necessary to replete intrathyroidal iodine stores by an adequate iodine supply, throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding. The best strategy to prevent (in iodine-replete areas) or to correct (in iodine-insufficient areas) iodine deficiency in pregnancy, and its negative...
KeywordsIodine Thyroid Pregnancy Reproduction Clinical practice
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
This paper did not require approval by the Ethics Committee.
This paper did not involve patients.
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