Chronic prostatitis and its detrimental impact on sperm parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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Prostatitis is a very common urogenital disease of the male with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7% worldwide. Interestingly, some recent evidences have showed a significant association between chronic prostatitis (CP) and male infertility including a detrimental effect on sperm parameters, reduction of zinc concentration on semen sperm and production of anti-semen antibodies (ASAs). The aim of the current meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between CP and alteration of semen parameters.
This analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines and we included in the final analysis 27 studies, with a total of 3241 participants, including 381 (11.75%) with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), 1670 (51.53%) with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and 1190 (36.72%) controls.
CBP was associated with reduction of sperm concentration, sperm vitality, sperm total and progressive motility, while CP/CPPS was related to the reduction of semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm progressive motility and sperm normal morphology. We found that CP was significantly associated with reduced zinc concentration on seminal plasma (SMD: −20.73; p = 0.005). Finally, CP statistically increased the risk of developing ASA on seminal plasma (OR 3.26; p < 0.01).
In conclusion, chronic prostatitis showed a detrimental effect on sperm and both CPB or CP/CPPS may differently show negative impact on sperm.
KeywordsChronic prostatitis Chronic bacterial prostatitis Chronic prostatitis CP/CPSS Sperm Alterations Semen Meta-analysis
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
No informed consent.
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