Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 40, Issue 8, pp 803–814 | Cite as

Immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes

  • Davide Frumento
  • Moufida Ben Nasr
  • Basset El Essawy
  • Francesca D’Addio
  • Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
  • Paolo FiorinaEmail author



Although many approaches have been tested to overcome the insulin dependence caused by the pancreatic β-cells destruction observed in individuals affected by type 1 diabetes (T1D), medical research has largely failed to halt the onset or to reverse T1D.


In this work, the state of the art of immunotherapy will be examined, and the most important achievement in the field will be critically discussed. Particularly, we will focus on the clinical aspect, thus avoiding the tedious preclinical work done in NOD mice, which has been so poorly translated to the bedside.


Stem cell therapies achieved thus this far the most promising results, while immune ablation and standard immunosuppressants did not maintain the premises of preclinical results. The next step will be to generate a feasible and safe clinical approach in order to cure the thousands of patients affected by T1D.


Type 1 diabetes Immunotherapy Trials Clinical 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We have no potential conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study formal consent in not required.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davide Frumento
    • 1
  • Moufida Ben Nasr
    • 2
    • 3
  • Basset El Essawy
    • 4
  • Francesca D’Addio
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
    • 5
  • Paolo Fiorina
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.DITIDSan Raffaele HospitalMilanItaly
  2. 2.International Center for T1D, Pediatric Clinical Research Center Fondazione Romeo e Enrica Invernizzi, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Science L. SaccoUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  3. 3.Nephrology Division, Boston Children’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  4. 4.MedicineAl-Azhar UniversityCairoEgypt
  5. 5.Pediatric Clinical Research Center Fondazione Romeo ed Enrica Invernizzi, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Science L. SaccoUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

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