Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 39, Issue 9, pp 1003–1013 | Cite as

Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules

  • S. BernardiEmail author
  • F. Stacul
  • M. Zecchin
  • C. Dobrinja
  • F. Zanconati
  • B. Fabris
Short Review


Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature.


Radiofrequency ablation Thyroid nodule Pacemaker Implantable cardioverter-defbrillator Ultrasound-guided procedure Minimally invasive nonsurgical techniques 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Bernardi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • F. Stacul
    • 3
  • M. Zecchin
    • 4
  • C. Dobrinja
    • 5
  • F. Zanconati
    • 1
    • 6
  • B. Fabris
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical, Surgical and Health SciencesUniversity of Trieste, Medicina Clinica, Cattinara Teaching HospitalTriesteItaly
  2. 2.SS Endocrinologia (UCO Medicina Clinica)Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Trieste, Cattinara Teaching HospitalTriesteItaly
  3. 3.SC RadiologiaAzienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Trieste, Maggiore Hospital, Piazza dell’OspitaleTriesteItaly
  4. 4.UCO Cardiologia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Trieste, Cattinara Teaching HospitalTriesteItaly
  5. 5.UCO Chirurgia Generale, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Trieste, Cattinara Teaching HospitalTriesteItaly
  6. 6.UCO Anatomia e Istologia Patologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Trieste, Cattinara Teaching HospitalTriesteItaly

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