Effects of monobutyl phthalate on steroidogenesis through steroidogenic acute regulatory protein regulated by transcription factors in mouse Leydig tumor cells
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Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the most widely used phthalate esters, and it is ubiquitous in the environment. DBP and its major metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBP), change steroid biosynthesis and impair male reproductive function. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying the steroid biosynthesis disruption by MBP is still unclear.
We analyzed the progesterone production, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA, protein expression, and DNA-binding affinity of transcription factors (SF-1 and GATA-4).
Our results reveal that MBP inhibited progesterone production. At the same time, StAR mRNA and protein were decreased after MBP exposure. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that DNA-binding affinity of transcription factors (SF-1 and GATA-4) was decreased in a dose-dependent manner after MBP treatments. Western blot tests next confirmed that protein of SF-1 was decreased, but GATA-4 protein was unchanged. However, phosphorylated GATA-4 protein was decreased with 800 μM of MBP.
This study reveals an important and novel mechanism whereby SF-1 and GATA-4 may regulate StAR during MBP-induced steroidogenesis disruption.
KeywordsMonobutyl phthalate Progesterone Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein Transcription factors Mouse Leydig tumor cells-1
Bovine serum albumin
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β
Dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia critical region on chromosome X gene 1
Fetal bovine serum
Mouse Leydig tumor cells-1
3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide
Steroidogenic factor 1
Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
YH YW conceived and designed the experiments. CD MC YC performed the experiments. YH MC XH analyzed the data. AG YK HS contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. YH wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Research was funded by National Natural Science Foundation (81373041).
Conflict of interest
All the authors state that they have no conflicts of interest.
Our research only used cell mode without Human Participants and/or Animals.
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