Impaired immune phenotype of circulating endothelial-derived microparticles in patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus
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Type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a leading contributor to cardiovascular mortality worldwide. This study was conducted to investigate the pattern of circulating EMPs in T2DM patients in comparison with MetS subjects.
The study retrospectively included 101 patients (54 subjects with T2DM and 47 patients with MetS) and 35 healthy volunteers. All the patients gave written informed consent for participation in the study. Biomarkers were measured at baseline of the study.
There is a significant difference between healthy subjects and patients regarding CD31+/annexin V+ EMPs to CD62E+ EMPs ratio, which reflects impaired phenotype of EMPs. Therefore, CD31+/annexin V+ EMPs to CD62E+ EMPs ratio was found to be higher in the T2DM patients compared to MetS patients. Using multivariate linear regression analyses, independent impact of T2DM (r = 0.40, P = 0.003), OPG (r = 0.37, P = 0.001), hs-CRP (r = 0.347, P = 0.001), and adiponectin (r = 0.33, P = 0.001) on increased CD31+/annexin V+ to CD62E+ ratio of EMPs was determined. Using C-statistics, we found that inflammatory biomarkers (hs-C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin and adiponectin) added to the base model (T2DM) improved the relative IDI by 12.6 % for increased CD31+/annexin V+ EMPs to CD62E+ EMPs ratio.
We found that patients with T2DM and MetS may be distinguished by predominantly appearing phenotypes of circulating EMPs associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine overproduction. Elevated CD31+/annexin V+ EMPs to CD62E+ EMPs ratio is an indicator of impaired immune phenotype of EMPs, which allows determining the pattern of EMPs in dysmetabolic disorder patients.
KeywordsDiabetes mellitus Metabolic syndrome Circulating endothelial-derived microparticles Cardiovascular risk factors
We thank all the patients for their participation in the investigation, staff of the Regional Zaporozhye Hospital (Ukraine), and the doctors, nurses, and administrative staff of the Regional Center of Cardiovascular Diseases (Zaporozhye, Ukraine) and City Hospital #6 (Zaporozhye, Ukraine), general practices, and site-managed organizations that assisted with the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of State Medical University, Zaporozhye, Ukraine and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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