Low-grade inflammation in overweight and obese adults is affected by weight loss program
Low-grade systemic inflammation due to obesity is considered to be the key link between obesity and obesity-related disorders. The hypothesis was tested that significant alterations in inflammatory markers and adipokines would occur over a multidisciplinary intervention and that these changes might also be important for improvement of cardiovascular risk factors.
Thirty-tree overweight adults completed a 6-month multidisciplinary intervention program to evaluate the effects of a personalized dietary program based on the individual’s resting metabolic rate (RMR) on anthropometric parameters, aerobic and anaerobic capabilities, metabolic profile, inflammation, and body image satisfaction. Body composition, physical activity, anaerobic capabilities, RMR, metabolic profile, and low-grade inflammation were measured. Diet composition and body image dissatisfaction were also assessed.
After 6 months of multidisciplinary intervention the participants showed significantly decreased body weight, waist circumference (WC), and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, and visfatin. They also showed increased anti-inflammatory adiponectin and consequently decreased serum insulin, HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol. The important findings of the study were that reduction of sugars and saturated fatty acids in the diet, coupled with an increase in exercise, significantly correlated with reduction of WC and body mass index. In addition, positive correlations between ∆ BMI, ∆ WC, ∆ trunk fat, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors were demonstrated.
Weight loss in combination with increased physical activity, a negative energy balance, and diet adjustment was associated with lower inflammation and consequently with lower cardiovascular risk factors.
KeywordsInterdisciplinary intervention Obesity Weight loss Adipokines Inflammation
The authors would like to thank all the subjects for their participation. The authors would also like to thank the nurses (Sabina Ličen and Tamara Štemberger Kolnik) of the Faculty of Health Sciences for taking blood samples, Vanja Pahor and the Izola General Hospital biochemical laboratory staff, and colleague Tamara Poklar Vatovec from the Faculty of Health Sciences for her technical support. The authors sincerely thank Nadja Plazar for supporting this study. They are also grateful to Peter Raspor and Anthony R. Byrne for proof reading the manuscript. The study was funded by the University of Primorska, Faculty of Health Sciences, for the project entitled “A multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of obesity”, by the Slovenian Research Agency (Programme P1-0386), and by the European Regional Development Fund, Cross-Border Cooperation Italy–Slovenia Programme 2007–2013 (EU strategic Project TRANS2CARE).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
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