Journal of Endocrinological Investigation

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 547–557

Justification of anthropometric empirical indicator (AEI) by digital chest and pelvic X-rays: a comparative scenario with DXA on obesity grounds

Original Article



Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat directly proportional to reduced life expectancy. Treatment of this ailment should be preceded by proper and accurate assessment of the degree of obesity.


The main objective is the justification of anthropometric empirical indicator (AEI) by the utilization of chest and pelvic radiographs, so that precise measurement of obesity on economical grounds can be manifested. Also, the subsequent objective is to establish a comparative scenario between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and novel, portable, bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA)-based body composition analyzer, MI-105 (Meditech International Inc. India).

Materials and methods

The cross-sectional design was adopted in the present study, in which 20 female participants from urban south India were involved. The measurements of body composition, anthropometry and chest (covering the region from neck to abdomen) as well as hip radiography of the studied population were acquired.


The higher significant difference of ≤0.001 was evidenced in all female studied population in the main body composition parameters measured by DXA and low-cost BIA. The same framework of significance is applicable to AEI, AEI (image morphed) and AEI (image automatic).


The novel-derived parameters: AEI (image morphed) and AEI (image automatic) can precisely gauge obesity and can be the effective alternatives for high-cost DXA. In addition, low-cost BIA-based body composition analyzer can also be the better substitute for DXA.


Obesity Body fat mass Percent body fat Dual X-ray absorptiometry Bioelectric impedance analysis 


  1. 1.
    Webber J (2003) Energy balance in obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 62(2):539–543CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ayvaz G, Cimen AR (2011) Methods for body composition analysis in adults. Open Obes J 3:62–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bjorntorp P (1990) Portal adipose tissue as a generator of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Arteriosclerosis 10:493–496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Evans DJ, Hoffman RG, Kalkhoff RD, Kissebah AH (1984) Relationship of body fat topography to insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles in premenopausal women. Metabolism 33:68–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fujioka S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K, Tarui S (1987) Contribution of intra-abdominal fat accumulation to the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in human obesity. Metabolism 36:54–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yamashita S, Nakamura T, Shimomura I, Nishida M, Yoshida S, Kotani K et al (1996) Insulin resistance and body fat distribution: contribution of visceral fat accumulation to the development of insulin-resistance and atherosclerosis. Diabetes Care 19:287–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van Der Kooy K, Seidell JC (1993) Techniques for the measurement of visceral fat: a practical guide. Int J Obes 17:187–196Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Suzuki R, Watanabe S, Hirai Y, Akiyama K, Nishide T, Matsushima Y et al (1993) Abdominal wall fat index, estimated by ultrasonography, for assessment of ratio of the ratio of visceral fat to subcutaneous fat in the abdomen. Am J Med 95(3):309–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bazzocchi A, Filonzi G, Ponti F, Amadori M, Sassi C, Salizzoni E, Albisinni U, Battista G (2013) The role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of abdominal fat: analysis of technical and methodological issues. Acad Radiol 20(10):1278–1285. doi:10.1016/j.acra.2013.07.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pineau JC, Filliard JR, Bocquet M (2009) Ultrasound techniques applied to body fat measurement in male and female athletes. J Athl Train 44(2):142–147PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ben-Noun LL, Laor A (2006) Relationship between changes in neck circumference and cardiovascular risk factors. Exp Clin Cardiol 11(1):14–20Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sudi KM, Gallistl S, Tafeit E, Moller R, Borkenstein MH (2000) The relationship between different subcutaneous adipose tissue layers, fat mass and leptin in obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 13:505–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Omar MA, Seedat MA, Dyer RB, Motala AA, Knight LT, Becker PJ (1994) South African Indians show a high prevalence of NIDDM and bimodality in plasma glucose distribution patterns. Diabetes Care 17:70–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Freiberg MS, Pencina MJ, D’Agostino RB, Lanier SK, Wilson PWF, Vasan RS (2008) BMI vs. waist circumference for identifying vascular risk. Obesity 16(2):463–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Dharmaraj D, Viswanathan M (1992) Prevalence of glucose intolerance in Asian Indians. Urban-rural difference and significance of upper body adiposity. Diabetes Care 15:1348–1355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohan KBK et al (2011) Anthropometry: a new approach to identify communal body fat status in an urban south Indian population. Obes Res Clin Pract. doi:10.1016/j.orcp,2011.11.006
  17. 17.
    Bertin E, Marcus C, Ruiz J-C, Eschard J-P, Leutenegger M (2000) Measurement of visceral adipose tissue by DXA combined with anthropometry in obese humans. Int J Obes 24:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nordhamn K, SoÈdergren E, Olsson E, KarlstroÈm B, Vessby B, Berglund L (2000) Reliability of anthropometric measurements in overweight and lean subjects: consequences for correlations between anthropometric and other variables. Int J Obes 24:652–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Laakso M, Matilainen V, Keina¨nen-Kiukaanniemi S (2000) Association of neck circumference with insulin resistance-related factors. Int J Obes 26:873–875. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802002 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mullany LC, Darmstadt GL, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Tielsch JM (2006) Relationship between the surrogate anthropometric measures, foot length and chest circumference and birth weight among newborns of Sarlahi, Nepal. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007(61):40–46. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602504 (published online 2)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kishore Mohan KB, Sapthagirivasan V, Anburajan M Community-specific BMI cutoff points for south Indian females. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Journal of Obesity, Volume 2011, Article ID 292503. doi:10.1155/2011/292503
  22. 22.
    Kishore Mohan KB, Anburajan M Multiparametric body composition analysis and anthropometric empirical indicator: obesity based south Indian perspective. J Endocrinol Investig doi:10.3275/8921
  23. 23.
    Bay H, Tuytelaars T, Van Gool L SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features.
  24. 24.
    Bradella MA, Ghomi RH, Thomas BJ, Torriani M, Brick DJ, Gerweck AV et al (2010) Comparison of DXA and CT in the assessment of body composition in premenopausal women with obesity and anorexia nervosa. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18(11):2227–2233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Oshima Y, Shiga T, Namba H, Kuno S (2010) Estimation of whole-body skeletal muscle mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the standing position. Obes Res Clin Pract 4:e1–e7. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2009.06.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kullberg J, Brandberg J, Angelhed JE, Frimmel H, Bergelin E, Strid L (2009) Whole-body adipose tissue analysis: comparison of MRI, CT and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Br J Radiol 82:123–130. doi:10.1259/bjr/80083156 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kobayashi J, Tadokoro N, Watanabe M, Shinomiya M (2002) A novel method of measuring intra-abdominal fat volume using helical computed tomography. Int J Obes 26:398–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Browning LM, Mugridge O, Chatfield M, Dixon A, Aitken S, Joubert I (2010) Validity of a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance device to measure abdominal and visceral fat: comparison with MRI. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18(12):2385–2391. doi:10.1038/oby.2010.71 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29. Detail/aspx?Id=5338 Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ross R, Shaw KD et al (1993) Adipose tissue distribution measured by MRI in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 57(4):470–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu F (2008) Measurements of adiposity and body composition. In: Hu F (ed) Obesity epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 53–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringSRM UniversityChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations