Designing Receptive Language Programs: Pushing the Boundaries of Research and Practice
- 309 Downloads
Initial difficulty with receptive language is a stumbling block for some children with autism. Numerous strategies have been attempted over the years, and general guidelines for teaching receptive language have been published. But what to do when all else fails? This article reviews 21 strategies that have been effective for some children with autism. Although many of the strategies require further research, behavioral practitioners should consider implementation after careful review. The purpose of this article is to help behavior analysts in practice to categorize different teaching procedures for systematic review, recognize the conceptually systematic rationale behind each strategy, identify different client profiles that may make 1 strategy more effective than another, and create modifications to receptive language programming that remain grounded in research.
KeywordsAutism Developmental disabilities Early intervention Instructional strategies Listener behavior Receptive language
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
This article has not been previously published and has not been and will not be submitted elsewhere during the review process.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Boesch, M. C., Wendt, O., Subramanian, A., & Hsu, N. (2013). Comparative efficacy of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) versus a speech-generating device: effects on requesting skills. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 480–493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Curiel, E. S., Sainato, D. M., & Goldstein, H. (2016). Matrix training of receptive language skills with a toddler with autism spectrum disorder: a case study. Education and Treatment of Children, 39, 95–109.Google Scholar
- Holmes, E. J., Eikeseth, S., & Schulze, K. A. (2015). Teaching individuals with autism receptive labeling skills involving conditional discriminations: a comparison of mass trial and intermixing before random rotation, random rotation only, and combined blocking. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 11, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.11.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kerr, N., Meyerson, L., Flora, J., Tharinger, D., Schallert, D., Casey, L., & Fehr, M. J. (1977). The measurement of motor, visual, and auditory discrimination skills in mentally retarded children and adults and in young normal children. Rehabilitation Psychology, 24, 91–206. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0090912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kodak, T., Clements, A., Paden, A. R., LeBlanc, B., Mintz, J., & Toussaint, K. A. (2015). Examination of the relation between an assessment of skills and performance on auditory–visual conditional discriminations for children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48, 52–70. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lamela, L., & Tincani, M. (2012). Brief wait time to increase response opportunity and correct responding of children with autism spectrum disorder who display challenging behavior. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 24, 559–573. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-012-9289-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lovaas, O. I. (2003). Teaching individuals with developmental delays: basic intervention techniques. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
- Majdalany, L. M., Wilder, D. A., Greif, A., Mathisen, D., & Saini, V. (2014). Comparing massed-trial instruction, distributed-trial instruction, and task interspersal to teach tacts to children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 657–662. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marion, C., Vause, T., Harapiak, S., Martin, G. L., Yu, C. T., Sakko, G., & Walters, K. L. (2003). The hierarchical relationship between several visual and auditory discriminations and three verbal operants among individuals with developmental disabilities. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 19, 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McEachin, J. J., Smith, T., & Lovaas, O. I. (1993). Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 359–372.Google Scholar
- Reid, D. H., DiCarlo, C. F., Schepis, M. M., Hawkins, J., & Stricklin, S. B. (2003). Observational assessment of toy preferences among young children with disabilities in inclusive settings: efficiency analysis and comparison with staff opinion. Behavior Modification, 27, 233–250. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445503251588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sakko, G., Martin, T. L., Vause, T., Martin, G. L., & Yu, C. T. (2004). Visual–visual nonidentity matching assessment: a worthwhile addition to the assessment of basic learning abilities test. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109, 44–52. https://doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2004)109<44:VNMAAW>2.0.CO;2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sallows, G. O., & Graupner, T. D. (2005). Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: four-year outcome and predictors. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110, 417–438.Google Scholar
- Sidman, M. (1986). Functional analysis of emergent verbal classes. In M. D. Zeiler & T. Thompson (Eds.), Analysis and integration of behavioral units (pp. 213–245). New York, NY: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Sidman, M. (2010). Reply to commentaries on “remarks” columns. Behavior and Philosophy, 38, 179–197.Google Scholar
- Simpson, K., Keen, D., & Lamb, J. (2015). Teaching receptive labelling to children with autism spectrum disorder: a comparative study using infant-directed song and infant-directed speech. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 40, 126–136. https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2015.1014026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Volkert, V. M., Lerman, D. C., Trosclair, N., Addison, L., & Kodak, T. (2008). An exploratory analysis of task-interspersal procedures while teaching object labels to children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 335–350. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2008.41-335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yoder, P., Watson, L. R., & Lambert, W. (2015). Value-added predictors of expressive and receptive language growth in initially nonverbal preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1254–1270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2286-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar