Minimizing and Reporting Momentary Time-Sampling Measurement Error in Single-Case Research

  • Kathleen B. CookEmail author
  • Sara M. Snyder
Technical and Tutorials


Research indicates that momentary time sampling (MTS) is often the best interval-measurement system when observing duration of behavior. Several recent studies recommended considering mean duration of target behavior, as well as durations of measurement intervals and observation sessions, to minimize measurement error in MTS. This report describes the steps we used to minimize measurement error in a single-case design research study. Further, we detail our methods for monitoring and reporting MTS measurement error across conditions by intermittently collecting and analyzing duration per occurrence measurements.


Interval recording Momentary time sampling Measurement error Single-case research design 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Communication Sciences and Special EducationUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Education DepartmentAugustana UniversitySioux FallsUSA
  3. 3.Educational Foundations and Exceptionalities DepartmentJames Madison UniversityHarrisonburgUSA

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