Advertisement

Behavior Analysis in Practice

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 424–435 | Cite as

A Call for Discussion About Scope of Competence in Behavior Analysis

  • Matthew T. BrodheadEmail author
  • Shawn P. Quigley
  • Susan M. Wilczynski
Discussion and Review Paper

Abstract

The field of behavior analysis has defined its scope of practice through credentialing and licensure efforts. However, scope of competence in behavior analysis has received little discussion. Scope of competence refers to activities that the individual practitioner can perform at a certain criterion level (e.g., the functional analysis is conducted accurately and safely, a skill acquisition program includes critical program components and establishes accurate stimulus control). Given the successful efforts of behavior analysts in growth and recognition of the field, it is time for a robust conversation about scope of competence for the field of behavior analysis. This discussion can clarify how behavior analysts self-evaluate their own scope of competence and how they might expand their scope of competence if the needs of consumers require practitioners to expand into new areas.

Keywords

Behavior analysis Ethics Scope of competence Scope of practice 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Dr. Linda LeBlanc and the five anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments, edits, and suggestions on multiple versions of this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Bailey, J., & Burch, M. (2010). 25 essential skills & strategies for the professional behavior analyst: Expert tips for maximizing consulting effectiveness. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2014). Professional and ethical compliance code for behavior analysts. Retrieved from http://bacb.com/ethics-code/
  3. Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2018). Continuing education. Retrieved from https://www.bacb.com/maintain/continuing-education/
  4. Boisvert, M., Lang, R., Andrianopoulos, M., & Boscardin, M. L. (2010). Telepractice in the assessment and treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 13, 423–432.  https://doi.org/10.3109/17518423.2010.499889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brethower, D., & Smalley, K. (1998). Performance-based instruction: Linking training to business results. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Pfeiffer.Google Scholar
  6. Brodhead, M. T. (2015). Maintaining professional relationships in an interdisciplinary setting: Strategies for navigating nonbehavioral treatment recommendations for individuals with autism. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 8, 70–78.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-015-0042-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brodhead, M. T., Cox, S. P., & Quigley, S. P. (2018). Practical ethics for effective treatment of autism spectrum disorder. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Brodhead, M. T., Durán, L., & Bloom, S. E. (2014). Cultural and linguistic diversity in recent verbal behavior research on individuals with disabilities: A review and implications for research and practice. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 30, 75–86.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40616-014-0009-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brodhead, M. T., & Higbee, T. S. (2012). Teaching and maintaining ethical behavior in a professional organization. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5, 82–88.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brodhead, M. T., Higbee, T. S., Pollard, J. S., Akers, J. S., & Gerencser, K. R. (2014). The use of linked activity schedules to teach children with autism to play hide-and-seek. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 645–650.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brodhead, M. T., Quigley, S. P., & Cox, D. J. (2018). How to identify ethical practices in organizations prior to employment. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 11, 165–173.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burning Glass Technologies. (2015). US behavior analyst workforce: Understanding the national demand for behavior analysts. Retrieved from https://www.bacb.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/151009-burning-glass-report.pdf
  13. Carr, J. E., & Briggs, A. M. (2010). Strategies for making regular contact with the scholarly literature. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 3, 13–18.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carr, J. E., & Nosik, M. R. (2017). Professional credentialing of practicing behavior analysts. Policy Insights From the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 3–8.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2372732216685861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cavalari, R. N. S., Gillis, J. M., Kruser, N., & Romanczyk, R. G. (2015). Digital communication and records in service provision and supervision: Regulation and practice. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 8, 176–189.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-014-0030-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deochand, N., & Fuqua, R. W. (2016). BACB certification trends: State of the states (1999 to 2014). Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9, 243–252.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-016-0118-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eldevik, S., Hastings, R. P., Hughes, J. C., Jahr, E., Eikeseth, S., & Cross, S. (2010). Using participant data to extend the evidence for intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115, 381–405.  https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-115.5.381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2012). The importance of competency-based clinical supervision and training in the twenty-first century: Why bother? Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 42, 129–137.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10879-011-9198-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fong, E. H., Catagnus, R. M., Brodhead, M. T., Quigley, S. P., & Field, S. (2016). Developing the cultural awareness skills of behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9, 84–89.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-016-0111-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Foxall, G. R. (2015). Consumer behavior analysis and the marketing firm: Bilateral contingency in the context of environmental concern. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 35, 44–69.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01608061.2015.1031426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Friman, P. C., & Piazza, C. C. (2011). Behavioral pediatrics: Integrating applied behavior analysis with pediatric medicine. In W. Fisher, C. Piazza, & H. Roane (Eds.), Handbook of applied behavior analysis (pp. 433–450). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Geiger, K. B., Carr, J. E., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2010). Function-based treatments for escape-maintained problem behavior: A treatment-selection model for practicing behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 3, 22–32.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Green, G., & Johnston, J. M. (2009a). A primer on professional credentialing: Introduction to invited commentaries on licensing behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2, 51–52.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Green, G., & Johnston, J. M. (2009b). Licensing of behavior analysts: Risks and alternatives. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2, 59–64.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioral and cognitive therapies. Behavior Therapy, 35, 639–665.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80013-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2015). School-wide PBIS: An example of applied behavior analysis implemented at a scale of social importance. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 8, 80–85.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-015-0045-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 (2004).Google Scholar
  28. Johnston, J. M., Carr, J. E., & Mellichamp, F. H. (2017). A history of the professional credentialing of applied behavior analysts. The Behavior Analyst, 40, 523–538.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-017-0106-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnston, J. M., Mellichamp, F. H., Shook, G. L., & Carr, J. E. (2014). Determining BACB examination content and standards. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 7, 3–9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-014-0003-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kanter, J. W., Callaghan, G. M., Landes, S. J., Busch, A. M., & Brown, K. R. (2004). Behavior analytic conceptualization and treatment of depression: Traditional models and recent advances. The Behavior Analyst Today, 5, 255–274.  https://doi.org/10.1037/ho100041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. King Jr., C. L., & Cennamo, K. (2016). The use of Gilbert’s behavioral engineering model to identify barriers to technology integration in a public school. In G. Chamblee & L. Langub (Eds.), Proceedings of the society for information technology & teacher education international conference (pp. 1224–1228). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.Google Scholar
  32. Kodak, T., & Grow, L. L. (2011). Behavioral treatment of autism. In W. W. Fisher, C. C. Piazza, & H. S. Roane (Eds.), Handbook of applied behavior analysis (pp. 402–416). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  33. Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. (2012). The PRT pocket guide: Pivotal response treatment for autism spectrum disorders. London, UK: Paul H. Brooks Publishing.Google Scholar
  34. Kohlenberg, R. J., Tsai, M., & Dougher, M. J. (1993). The dimensions of clinical behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 16, 271–282.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03392636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Krapfl, J. E., & Kruja, L. (2015). Leadership and culture. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 35, 28–43.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01608061.2015.1031431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lambert, J. M., Lopano, S. E., Noel, C. R., & Ritchie, M. N. (2017). Teacher-conducted, latency-based functional analysis as basis for individualized levels system in a classroom setting. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 10, 422–426.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-017-0200-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Layng, T. V. J., Sota, M., & Leon, M. (2011). Thinking through text comprehension I: Foundation and guiding relations. The Behavior Analyst Today, 12, 3–11.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0100706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. LeBlanc, L. A., Heinicke, M. R., & Baker, J. C. (2012). Expanding the consumer base for behavior-analytic services: Meeting the needs of consumers of the 21st century. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5, 4–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li, A., & Poling, A. (2018). Board certified behavior analysts and psychotropic medications: Slipshod training, inconsistent involvement, and reason for hope. Behavior Analysis in Practice. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-018-0237-9.
  40. Li, A., Wallace, L., Ehrhardt, K. E., & Poling, A. (2017). Reporting participant characteristics in intervention articles published in five behavior-analytic journals, 2013–2015. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, 17, 84–91.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bar0000071.Google Scholar
  41. Malott, M. E. (2003). The paradox of organizational change: Engineering organizations with behavioral systems analysis. Reno, NV: Context Press.Google Scholar
  42. Matson, J. L., Horovitz, M., Mahan, S., & Fodstad, J. (2012). Reliability of the Matson evaluation of social skills with youngsters (MESSY) for children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 405–410.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.10.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moore, J., & Shook, G. L. (2001). Certification, accreditation, and quality control in behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 24, 45–55.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03392018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Myers, W. V., McSween, T. E., Median, R. E., Rost, K., & Alvero, A. M. (2010). The implementation and maintenance of a behavioral safety process in a petroleum refinery. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 30, 285–307.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01608061.2010.499027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. National Autism Center. (2015). Findings and conclusions: National standards project, phase 2. Randolph, MA: Author.Google Scholar
  46. Newhouse-Oisten, M. K., Peck, K. M., Conway, A. A., & Frieder, J. E. (2017). Ethical considerations for interdisciplinary collaboration with prescribing professionals. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 10, 145–153.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-017-0184-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ontario Association for Behavior Analysis. (2017). Evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder: Recommendations for caregivers, practitioners, and policymakers. Retrieved from http://www.ontaba.org/pdf/ONTABA%20OSETT-ASD%20REPORT%20WEB.pdf
  48. Piazza, C. C., Fisher, W. W., Brown, K. A., Shore, B. A., Patel, M. R., Katz, R. M., … Blakely-Smith, A. (2003). Functional analysis of inappropriate mealtime behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 187–204.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2003.36-187.
  49. Quigley, S. P., Blevins, P. R., Cox, D. J., Brodhead, M. T., & Kim, S. Y. (2018). An evaluation of the ethical implications of telehealth research with individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1037/bar0000094.
  50. Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 34 C.F.R. § 504, Part 104.Google Scholar
  51. Reid, D. H., Parsons, M. B., & Green, C. W. (2012). The supervisor’s guidebook: Evidence-based strategies for promoting work quality and enjoyment among human service staff. Morganton, NC: Habilitative Management Consultants.Google Scholar
  52. Rispoli, M., Ninci, J., Burke, M. D., Zaini, S., Hatton, H., & Sanchez, L. (2015). Evaluating the accuracy of results for teacher implemented trial-based functional analyses. Behavior Modification, 39, 627–653.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445515590456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rosenberg, N. E., & Schwartz, I. S. (in press). Guidance or compliance: What makes an ethical behavior analyst? Behavior Analysis in Practice.Google Scholar
  54. Scheeler, M. C. (2008). Generalizing effective teaching skills: The missing link in teacher preparation. Journal of Behavioral Education, 17, 145–159.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-007-9051-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schlinger, H. J. (1995). A behavior analytic view of child development. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schreibman, L., Dawson, G., Stahmer, A. C., Landa, R., Rogers, S. J., McGee, G. G., … Halladay, A. (2015). Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions: Empirically validated treatments for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 2411–2428.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-015-2407-8.
  57. Sellers, T. P., Alai-Rosales, S., & MacDonald, R. P. F. (2016). Taking full responsibility: The ethics of supervision in behavior analytic practice. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9, 299–308.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-016-0144-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shook, G. L. (1993). The professional credential in behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 16, 87–101.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03392018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shook, G. L. (2005). An examination of the integrity and future of the behavior analyst certification board credentials. Behavior Modification, 29, 562–574.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445504274203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shook, G. L., & Favell, J. E. (2008). The behavior analyst certification board and the profession of behavior analysis. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 1, 44–48.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shook, G. L., Hartsfield, F., & Hemingway, M. (1995). Essential content for training behavior analysis practitioners. The Behavior Analyst, 18, 83–91.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03392694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Slocum, T. A., Detrich, R., & Spencer, T. D. (2012). Evaluating the validity of systematic reviews to identify empirically supported treatments. Education and Treatment of Children, 35, 201–234.  https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2012.0009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Slocum, T. A., Detrich, R., Wilczynski, S. M., Spencer, T. D., Lewis, T., & Wolfe, K. (2014). The evidence-based practice of applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 37, 41–56.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-014-0005-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Starin, S., Hemingway, M., & Hartsfield, F. D. (1993). Credentialing behavior analysts and the Florida behavior analysis certification program. The Behavior Analyst, 16, 153–166.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03392620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wilczynski, S. M. (2017). A practical guide to finding treatments that work for people with autism. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Wong, C., Odom, S. L., Hume, K. A., Cox, A. W., Fettig, A., Kucharczyk, S., … Schultz, T. R. (2015). Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with autism spectrum disorder: A comprehensive review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1951–1966.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2351-z.

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special EducationMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.MelmarkBerwynUSA
  3. 3.Department of Special EducationBall State UniversityMuncieUSA

Personalised recommendations