Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 1107–1121 | Cite as

Factors Influencing Low Prevalence of Neurodevelopmental Disabilities Among US Hispanic/Latino Children

  • Sarah GarciaEmail author
  • Jennifer Hall-Lande
  • Kelly Nye-Lengerman



Hispanic/Latino (H/L) children have lower prevalence of neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) than other groups. The explanations for this are complex, but may be related to nativity, language barriers, and lack of access to and utilization of healthcare. Previous research focused on how these factors affect children with NDD, but little research has jointly examined whether these factors predict NDD. This study examines whether social and environmental factors explain low prevalence of NDD in this population.


This study uses nationally representative Integrated Public Use Microdata Series National Health Interview Survey data (N = 200,622) and multivariate logistic regression analysis to compare NDD prevalence in white and H/L children (average age of 10.2), and examines whether nativity, healthcare access, healthcare utilization, and language barriers explain this disability disparity.


Findings reveal that the H/L NDD disparity is not explained by differences in access to or utilization of healthcare, or as a result of language differences that may create barriers to NDD diagnosis. While H/L children whose sampled adult was born in the USA have lower rates of NDD than whites, H/Ls whose sampled adult were not born in the USA have even lower probability of NDD than H/Ls who were born in the USA.


These findings may be a result of cultural differences in knowledge or understanding of what constitutes a disability or the result of differential treatment within the healthcare system among H/Ls. The findings underscore the importance of accessible and culturally appropriate health and clinical care interventions among H/L communities.


Neurodevelopmental disabilities Racial and ethnic disparities Health disparities Healthcare 



The authors would like to thank Rob Warren for his helpful feedback.

Funding Information

This study was supported by the Minnesota Population Center (P2C HD041023) funded through a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development [101].

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Baio J, et al. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveillance Summaries. 2018;67(6):1.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Getahun D, Jacobsen SJ, Fassett MJ, Chen W, Demissie K, Rhoads GG. Recent trends in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(3):282–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blumberg, S. J., et al. Changes in prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder in school-aged US children: 2007 to 2011–2012. 2013: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fombonne E. Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatr Res. 2009;65(6):591–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®): American Psychiatric Pub; 2013.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Christensen DL, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2012. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018;65(13):1.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Friedman DJ, Gibson Parrish R, Fox MH. A review of global literature on using administrative data to estimate prevalence of intellectual and developmental disabilities. J Policy Pract Intellect Disab. 2018;15(1):43–62.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fujiura GT, Li H, Magaña S. Health services use and costs for Americans with intellectual and developmental disabilities: a national analysis. Intellect Dev Dis. 2018;56(2):101–18.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mandell DS, Wiggins LD, Carpenter LA, Daniels J, DiGuiseppi C, Durkin MS, et al. Racial/ethnic disparities in the identification of children with autism spectrum disorders. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(3):493–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boyle CA, Boulet S, Schieve LA, Cohen RA, Blumberg SJ, Yeargin-Allsopp M, et al. Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997–2008. Pediatrics. 2011;127(6):1034–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pedersen, A., et al., Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Pediatrics, 2012: p. peds. 2011–1145.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Epstein JN, Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Kahn RS. Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of US children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(9):857–64.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zablotsky B, Black LI, Blumberg SJ. Estimated prevalence of children with diagnosed developmental disabilities in the United States, 2014-2016. NCHS data brief. 2017;(291):1–8.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    CDC, Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries, 2012. 61(3):1–19.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kogan MD, Blumberg SJ, Schieve LA, Boyle CA, Perrin JM, Ghandour RM, et al. Prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in the US, 2007. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):1395–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    CDC. Mental health in the United States: parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4-17 years--United States, 2003-2004. MMWR. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(17):481.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schieve LA, Boulet SL, Blumberg SJ, Kogan MD, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Boyle CA, et al. Association between parental nativity and autism spectrum disorder among US-born non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children, 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. Disabil Health J. 2012;5(1):18–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Croen LA, Grether JK, Selvin S. Descriptive epidemiology of autism in a California population: who is at risk? J Autism Dev Disord. 2002;32(3):217–24.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cuffe SP, Moore CG, McKeown RE. Prevalence and correlates of ADHD symptoms in the national health interview survey. J Atten Disord. 2005;9(2):392–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Collins KP, Cleary SD. Racial and ethnic disparities in parent-reported diagnosis of ADHD: National Survey of Children’s Health (2003, 2007, and 2011). J Clin Psychiatry. 2016;77(1):52–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shifrer D, Muller C, Callahan R. Disproportionality and learning disabilities: parsing apart race, socioeconomic status, and language. J Learn Disabil. 2011;44(3):246–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Magaña S, Lopez K, Aguinaga A, Morton H. Access to diagnosis and treatment services among Latino children with autism spectrum disorders. Intellect Dev Disabil. 2013;51(3):141–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blewett, L.A., et al. IPUMS Health Surveys: National Health Interview Survey, Version 6.3 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018. 2018; Available from:
  24. 24.
    United States Census Bureau. Facts for features: Hispanic heritage month 2017. Fast Facts 2017; Available from:
  25. 25.
    Fry RA. Latino settlement in the new century. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center; 2008.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cauce, A.M. and M. Domenech-Rodriguez, Latino families: myths and realities. Latino children and families in the United States: Current research and future directions, 2002: p. 3–25.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Magaña S, Lopez K, Machalicek W. Parents taking action: a psycho-educational intervention for Latino parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Fam Process. 2017;56(1):59–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Macartney, S., A. Bishaw, and K. Fontenot, Poverty rates for selected detailed race and Hispanic groups by state and place: 2007–2011. 2013: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US ….Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Adhanom-Ghebreyesus, T. Health is a fundamental human right. 2017 [cited 2018 September 4, 2018]; Available from:
  30. 30.
    Raphael JL, Guadagnolo BA, Beal AC, Giardino AP. Racial and ethnic disparities in indicators of a primary care medical home for children. Acad Pediatr. 2009;9(4):221–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Flores G, Olson L, Tomany-Korman SC. Racial and ethnic disparities in early childhood health and health care. Pediatrics. 2005;115(2):e183–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Abdullahi I, Leonard H, Cherian S, Mutch R, Glasson EJ, de Klerk N, et al. The risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities in children of immigrant and refugee parents: current knowledge and directions for future research. Rev J Autism Dev Disord. 2018;5(1):29–42.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Campbell SM, Roland MO, Buetow SA. Defining quality of care. Soc Sci Med. 2000;51(11):1611–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Flores G. Technical report—racial and ethnic disparities in the health and health care of children. Pediatrics. 2010: p. peds. 2010-0188;125:e979–e1020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thomas KC, Ellis AR, McLaurin C, Daniels J, Morrissey JP. Access to care for autism-related services. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(10):1902–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Magaña S, Parish SL, Rose RA, Timberlake M, Swaine JG. Racial and ethnic disparities in quality of health care among children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Intellect Dev Disabil. 2012;50(4):287–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Parish S, Magaña S, Rose R, Timberlake M, Swaine JG. Health care of Latino children with autism and other developmental disabilities: quality of provider interaction mediates utilization. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2012;117(4):304–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Philbin MM, Flake M, Hatzenbuehler ML, Hirsch JS. State-level immigration and immigrant-focused policies as drivers of Latino health disparities in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2018;199:29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Toomey RB, Umaña-Taylor AJ, Williams DR, Harvey-Mendoza E, Jahromi LB, Updegraff KA. Impact of Arizona’s SB 1070 immigration law on utilization of health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(S1):S28–34.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    White K, Yeager VA, Menachemi N, Scarinci IC. Impact of Alabama’s immigration law on access to health care among Latina immigrants and children: implications for national reform. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(3):397–405.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fountain C, Bearman P. Risk as social context: immigration policy and autism in California 1. In: Sociological Forum, vol. 26: Wiley Online Library; 2011. p. 215–40.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Timmins CL. The impact of language barriers on the health care of Latinos in the United States: a review of the literature and guidelines for practice. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2002;47(2):80–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Amant HGS, et al. Language barriers impact access to services for children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018;48(2):333–40.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Coker, C.C., A comparison of job satisfaction and economic benefits of four different employment models for persons with disabilities. 1995.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zuckerman KE, Mattox K, Donelan K, Batbayar O, Baghaee A, Bethell C. Pediatrician identification of Latino children at risk for autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2013: p. peds. 2013-0383;132:445–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Guevara JP, Gerdes M, Localio R, Huang YV, Pinto-Martin J, Minkovitz CS, et al. Effectiveness of developmental screening in an urban setting. Pediatrics. 2013: p peds. 2012-0765;131:30–7.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zuckerman KE, Sinche B, Mejia A, Cobian M, Becker T, Nicolaidis C. Latino parents’ perspectives on barriers to autism diagnosis. Acad Pediatr. 2014;14(3):301–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Norbury CF, Sparks A. Difference or disorder? Cultural issues in understanding neurodevelopmental disorders. Dev Psychol. 2013;49(1):45–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Blacher J, Lopez S, Shapiro J, Fusco J. Contributions to depression in Latina mothers with and without children with retardation: implications for caregiving. Fam Relat. 1997;46:325–34.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bailey DB Jr, et al. Awareness, use, and satisfaction with services for Latino parents of young children with disabilities. Except Child. 1999;65(3):367–81.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Reyes NM, Lindly OJ, Chavez AE, Folan A, Macias K, Smith KA, et al. Maternal beliefs about autism: a link between intervention services and autism severity in White and Latino mothers. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2018;51:38–48.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cohen SR, Miguel J. Amor and social stigma: ASD beliefs among immigrant Mexican parents. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018;48(6):1995–2009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Marolda CA. Effects of cultural assimilation on Latino parents’ knowledge and attitudes towards autism and perceived barriers to health care: Capella University; 2018.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zuckerman KE, Sinche B, Cobian M, Cervantes M, Mejia A, Becker T, et al. Conceptualization of autism in the Latino community and its relationship with early diagnosis. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014;35(8):522–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Singh GK, Yu SM, Kogan MD. Health, chronic conditions, and behavioral risk disparities among US immigrant children and adolescents. Public Health Rep. 2013;128(6):463–79.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cuy Castellanos D. Dietary acculturation in Latinos/Hispanics in the United States. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2015;9(1):31–6.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kim J, Nicodimos S, Kushner SE, Rhew IC, McCauley E, Vander Stoep A. Comparing mental health of US children of immigrants and non-immigrants in 4 racial/ethnic groups. J Sch Health. 2018;88(2):167–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chang, J.A., Health, health insurance coverage, health care service utilization and family structure among children of immigrants. 2018.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Durkin MS, Maenner MJ, Baio J, Christensen D, Daniels J, Fitzgerald R, et al. Autism spectrum disorder among US children (2002–2010): socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities. Am J Public Health. 2017;107(11):1818–26.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Palmer RF, Walker T, Mandell D, Bayles B, Miller CS. Explaining low rates of autism among Hispanic schoolchildren in Texas. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(2):270–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Johnson B. Early intervention in children with developmental disabilities. BMH Med J. 2016;3(1).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lowe K, Allen D, Jones E, Brophy S, Moore K, James W. Challenging behaviours: prevalence and topographies. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2007;51(8):625–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Petrenko CL. A review of intervention programs to prevent and treat behavioral problems in young children with developmental disabilities. J Dev Phys Disabil. 2013;25(6):651–79.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Liptak GS, Benzoni LB, Mruzek DW, Nolan KW, Thingvoll MA, Wade CM, et al. Disparities in diagnosis and access to health services for children with autism: data from the National Survey of Children’s Health. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2008;29(3):152–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fountain C, King MD, Bearman PS. Age of diagnosis for autism: individual and community factors across 10 birth cohorts. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(6):503–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dawson G, Rogers S, Munson J, Smith M, Winter J, Greenson J, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics. 2010;125(1):e17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Statute and regulations. 2018; Available from:
  68. 68.
    Johnson PJ, Blewett LA, Ruggles S, Davern ME, King ML. Four decades of population health data: the integrated health interview series as an epidemiologic resource. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.). 2008;19(6):872–5.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Artiga S, Ubri P. Key issues in children’s health coverage. Medicaid. 2017; Available from:
  70. 70.
    Musumeci M, Foutz J. Medicaid’s role for children with special health care needs: a look at eligibility, services, and spending. In: Kaiser Family Foundation: Kaiser Family Foundation website; 2018.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    CDC. Learn the signs. Act Early 2018; Available from:
  72. 72.
    Hall-Lande J, et al. Age of initial identification of autism spectrum disorder in a diverse urban sample. J Autism Dev Disord. 2018:1–6.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dealberto MJ. Prevalence of autism according to maternal immigrant status and ethnic origin. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;123(5):339–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lauritsen MB, Pedersen CB, Mortensen PB. Effects of familial risk factors and place of birth on the risk of autism: a nationwide register-based study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46(9):963–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Portes A, Rivas A. The adaptation of migrant children. Futur Child. 2011;21:219–46.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ono H. Assimilation, ethnic competition, and ethnic identities of US-born persons of Mexican origin. Int Migr Rev. 2002;36(3):726–45.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    U.S. Census Bureau, Americans Are Visiting the Doctor Less Frequently, Census Bureau Reports. 2012, U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Census Bureau website.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ortega AN, Fang H, Perez VH, Rizzo JA, Carter-Pokras O, Wallace SP, et al. Health care access, use of services, and experiences among undocumented Mexicans and other Latinos. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(21):2354–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Berk ML, Schur CL. The effect of fear on access to care among undocumented Latino immigrants. J Immigr Health. 2001;3(3):151–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    López-Cevallos D. Are Latino immigrants a burden to safety net services in nontraditional immigrant states? Lessons from Oregon. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(5):781–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rhodes SD, Mann L, Simán FM, Song E, Alonzo J, Downs M, et al. The impact of local immigration enforcement policies on the health of immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(2):329–37.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    CDC. Screening and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder 2018; Available from:
  83. 83.
    Attention Deficit Disorder Association. Adult ADHD test. 2018; Available from:
  84. 84.
    Data-USA. Speech-language Pathology. 2016 08/15/18]; Available from:
  85. 85.
    Henrich J, Heine SJ, Norenzayan A. The weirdest people in the world? Behav Brain Sci. 2010;33(2–3):61–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Begeer S, Bouk SE, Boussaid W, Terwogt MM, Koot HM. Underdiagnosis and referral bias of autism in ethnic minorities. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(1):142–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    U.S. Department of Education. Fast facts: students with disabilities. 2018; Available from:
  88. 88.
    Bronheim SM, Soto S, Anthony BJ. Addressing disparities in access to information for Hispanic families of children with special health care needs: increasing use of family-to-family centers. J Health Dispar Res Pract. 2015;8(2).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bernier A, Carlson SM, Whipple N. From external regulation to self-regulation: early parenting precursors of young children’s executive functioning. Child Dev. 2010;81(1):326–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bernier R, Mao A, Yen J. Psychopathology, families, and culture: autism. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin. 2010;19(4):855–67.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Daniels AM, Mandell DS. Explaining differences in age at autism spectrum disorder diagnosis: a critical review. Autism. 2014;18(5):583–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Valicenti-McDermott M, Hottinger K, Seijo R, Shulman L. Age at diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. J Pediatr. 2012;161(3):554–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Livingston, G. and A. Brown, The rise of multiracial and multiethnic babies in the US. Pew research center, 2017. 6.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Maguire, C. Autism on the rise: a global perspective. Harvard Global Health Review 2013; Available from:
  95. 95.
    Schmidt RJ, Hansen RL, Hartiala J, Allayee H, Schmidt LC, Tancredi DJ, et al. Prenatal vitamins, one-carbon metabolism gene variants, and risk for autism. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass). 2011;22(4):476–85.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Surén P, Roth C, Bresnahan M, Haugen M, Hornig M, Hirtz D, et al. Association between maternal use of folic acid supplements and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children. Jama. 2013;309(6):570–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yang Q-H, Carter HK, Mulinare J, Berry RJ, Friedman JM, Erickson JD. Race-ethnicity differences in folic acid intake in women of childbearing age in the United States after folic acid fortification: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2002. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(5):1409–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tinker SC, Devine O, Mai C, Hamner HC, Reefhuis J, Gilboa SM, et al. Estimate of the potential impact of folic acid fortification of corn masa flour on the prevention of neural tube defects. Birth Defects Res Part A. 2013;97(10):649–57.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Karoly LA. Investing in our children: what we know and don’t know about the costs and benefits of early childhood interventions: Rand Corporation; 1998.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zwaigenbaum L, Bauman ML, Choueiri R, Kasari C, Carter A, Granpeesheh D, et al. Early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder under 3 years of age: recommendations for practice and research. Pediatrics. 2015;136(Supplement 1):S60–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Vandell DL, Belsky J, Burchinal M, Steinberg L, Vandergrift N, NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. Do effects of early child care extend to age 15 years? Results from the NICHD study of early child care and youth development. Child Dev. 2010;81(3):737–56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© W. Montague Cobb-NMA Health Institute 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Garcia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jennifer Hall-Lande
    • 2
  • Kelly Nye-Lengerman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Institute on Community IntegrationUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations