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Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

, Volume 5, Issue 5, pp 1084–1092 | Cite as

Dimensions of and Responses to Perceived Discrimination and Subclinical Disease Among African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

  • Victoria I. Okhomina
  • LáShauntá Glover
  • Herman Taylor
  • Mario SimsEmail author
Article

Abstract

Background

Although discrimination among African Americans (AAs) has been linked to various health outcomes, few studies have examined associations of multiple measures of discrimination with prevalent subclinical disease in a large sample of AAs.

Objectives

To examine the associations of measures of discrimination and coping responses to discrimination with prevalent subclinical disease among AAs in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS); and whether this association is modified by sex.

Methods

We examined the associations of everyday, lifetime, and burden of lifetime discrimination with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) among 3029 AAs in the JHS. Prevalence ratios (PR 95% confidence interval—CI) and odds ratios (OR 95% CI) were estimated for above-median cIMT and LVH, respectfully, adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and clinical risk factors.

Results

No significant associations were found between everyday and lifetime discrimination and median cIMT and LVH. Participants who reported high (vs. no) burden of lifetime discrimination had a 48% reduced odds of LVH (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29, 0.94) after full adjustment. There was evidence of effect modification by sex in the association of coping with everyday discrimination and LVH after full adjustment (p value for interaction < 0.01). Women who actively (vs. passively) coped with everyday discrimination had a greater odds of prevalent LVH (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.39, 4.46).

Conclusions

This study suggests that the manner by which AA women cope with discriminatory events is associated with subclinical disease.

Keywords

Discrimination Subclinical disease Coping African American Jackson heart study Cardiovascular disease 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the staff and participants of the Jackson Heart Study for their important contributions and ongoing support.

Funding Sources

The Jackson Heart Study is supported by contracts HHSN268201300046C, HHSN268201300047C, HHSN268201300048C, HHSN268201300049C, HHSN268201300050C from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD). Dr. Sims is supported by the grants P60MD002249 and U54MD008176 from the NIMHD; 15SFDRN26140001 and P50HL120163 from American Heart Association; and 1R01HL116446 from the NHLBI.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All participants provided informed consent and the study was approved by the institutional review boards of the participating institutions: the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson State University, and Tougaloo College.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© W. Montague Cobb-NMA Health Institute 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria I. Okhomina
    • 1
  • LáShauntá Glover
    • 2
  • Herman Taylor
    • 3
  • Mario Sims
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiostatisticsVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson Heart StudyJacksonUSA
  3. 3.Cardiovascular Research Institute, Morehouse School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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