Advertisement

Perspectives on Behavior Science

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 637–652 | Cite as

Maternal Behavioral Health: Fertile Ground for Behavior Analysis

  • Yukiko WashioEmail author
  • Mara Humphreys
Original Research
  • 138 Downloads

Abstract

The World Health Organization has identified four behavioral health priorities as risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in maternal populations: tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity. These risk factors also significantly affect pregnant and immediately postpartum mothers, doubling the health risk and economic burden by adversely affecting maternal and birth or infant outcomes. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions are ideal for pregnant and immediately postpartum women as opposed to pharmacotherapy. Among other behavioral interventions, the use of incentives based on the principles of reinforcement has been a successful yet controversial way to change health behaviors. Implementing an incentive-based intervention in maternal health often brings up social validity concerns. The existing guideline on how to develop and conduct research in incentive-based interventions for maternal health lacks enough information on the specific variables to control for to maintain the intervention’s effectiveness. This article outlines some of the critical variables in implementing an effective behavior–analytic intervention and addressing social validity concerns to change maternal behaviors in a sustainable manner, along with specific research topics needed in the field to prevent adverse maternal, birth, and infant outcomes.

Keywords

Health incentives Maternal and infant health Smoking Drinking Breastfeeding Behavioral health research 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Financial Disclosure

The authors have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

References

  1. Adams, E. K., Miller, V. P., Ernst, C., Nishimura, B. K., Melvin, C., & Merritt, R. (2002). Neonatal health care costs related to smoking during pregnancy. Health Economics, 11, 193–206.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alessi, S. M., & Petry, N. M. (2013). A randomized study of cellphone technology to reinforce alcohol abstinence in the natural environment. Addiction, 108, 900–909.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aliyu, M. H., Wilson, R. E., Zoorob, R., Chakrabarty, S., Alio, A. P., Kirby, R. S., & Salihu, H. M. (2008). Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of early stillbirth among singletons. Alcohol, 42, 369–374.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2008.04.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, S. S., Allen, A. M., Lunos, S., & Tosun, N. (2016). Progesterone and postpartum smoking relapse: A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 18, 2145–2153.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw156.
  5. Amass, L., & Kamien, J. (2004). A tale of two cities: Financing two voucher programs for substance abusers through community donations. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 12, 147–155.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1064-1297.12.2.147.
  6. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). (2012). AAP reaffirms breastfeeding guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/pages/aap-reaffirms-breastfeeding-guidelines.aspx.
  7. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). (2015). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2015/10/13/peds.2015-3113.
  8. Bailey, B. A., McCook, J. G., Hodge, A., & McGrady, L. (2012). Infant birth outcomes among substance using women: Why quitting smoking during pregnancy is just as important as quitting illicit drug use. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16, 414–422.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-011-0776-y.
  9. Barnett, N. P., Tidey, J., Murphy, J. G., Swift, R., & Colby, S. M. (2011). Contingency management for alcohol use reduction: A pilot study using a transdermal alcohol sensor. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(2–3), 391–399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.04.023.
  10. Bartick, M. (2011). Breastfeeding and the U. S. economy. Breastfeeding Medicine, 6, 313–318.  https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2011.0057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartick, M. C., Schwarz, E. B., Green, B. D., Jegier, B. J., Reinhold, A. G., Colaizy, T. T., Bogen, D. L., Schaefer, A. J., & Stuebe, A. M. (2017). Suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: maternal and pediatric health outcomes and costs. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 13, 13.  https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beral, V., Bull, D., Doll, R., Peto, R., & Reeves, G. (2002). Breast cancer and breastfeeding: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973 women without the disease. The Lancet, 360, 187–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09454-0.
  13. Boone-Heinonen, J., Messer, L., Andrade, K., & Takemoto, E. (2016). Connecting the dots in childhood obesity disparities: A review of growth patterns from birth to pre-adolescence. Current Epidemiology Reports, 3, 113–124.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40471-016-0065-9.
  14. Brownell, M. D., Chartier, M. J., Nickel, N. C., Chateau, D., Martens, P. J., Sarkar, J., . . ., Katz, A. (2016). Unconditional prenatal income supplement and birth outcomes. Pediatrics, 137, e20152992.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-2992.
  15. Cahill, K., Hartmann-Boyce, J., & Perera, R. (2015). Incentives for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2015(5).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004307.pub5.
  16. Catalano, P. M., & Shankar, K. (2017). Obesity and pregnancy: Mechanisms of short term and long term adverse consequences for mother and child. BMJ, 356, j1.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j1.
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Vital signs: Disparities in nonsmokers’ exposure to secondhand smoke—United States, 1999–2012. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6404a7.htm?s_cid=mm6404a7_w.
  18. Chamberlain, C., O’Mara-Eves, A., Oliver, S., Caird, J. R., Perlen, S. M., Eades, S. J., & Thomas, J. (2017). Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2017(2).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001055.pub5.
  19. Chapman, D. J., & Pérez-Escamilla, R. (2012). Breastfeeding among minority women: Moving from risk factors to interventions. Advances in Nutrition, 3, 95–104.  https://doi.org/10.3945/an.111.001016.
  20. Chowdhury, R., Sinha, B., Sankar, M. J., Taneja, S., Bhandari, N., Rollins, N., Bahl, R., & Martines, J. (2015). Breastfeeding and maternal health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatrica, 104, 96–113.  https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.13102.
  21. Coleman, T., Chamberlain, C., Davey, M.-A., Cooper, S. E., & Leonardi-Bee, J. (2015). Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2015(12).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010078.pub2.
  22. Cooper, W., Heron, J. O., & Heward, T. E. (Eds.). (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  23. Cunningham, S. D., Grilo, S., Lewis, J. B., Novick, G., Rising, S. S., Tobin, J. N., & Ickovics, J. R. (2017). Group prenatal care attendance: Determinants and relationship with care satisfaction. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21, 770–776.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2161-3.
  24. Dewey, K. G., Heinig, M. J., & Nommsen, L. A. (1993). Maternal weight-loss patterns during prolonged lactation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 162–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Donatelle, R., Hudson, D., Dobie, S., Goodall, A., Hunsberger, M., & Oswald, K. (2004). Incentives in smoking cessation: Status of the field and implications for research and practice with pregnant smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6, 163–179.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200410001669196.
  26. Dupraz, J., Graff, V., Barasche, J., Etter, J. F., & Boulvain, M. (2013). Tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy: Prevalence and determinants in Geneva in 2008. Swiss Medical Weekly, 143.  https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2013.13795.
  27. Ernst, C. C., Grant, T. M., Streissguth, A. P., & Sampson, P. D. (1999). Intervention with high-risk alcohol and drug-abusing mothers: II. Three-year findings from the Seattle model of paraprofessional advocacy. Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 19–38.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6629(199901)27:1<19::AID-JCOP2>3.0.CO;2-K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feeney, A., & Britton, G. (2016). Counseling women on smoking relapse prevention during postpartum. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 41, 287–292.  https://doi.org/10.1097/NMC.0000000000000262.Google Scholar
  29. Florence, C. S., Adams, E. K., & Ayadi, M. F. (2007). Pediatric health care costs attributable to exposure to second-hand smoke: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Health Care Finance, 34, 36–43.Google Scholar
  30. Furman, L. (2017). Should we pay mothers who receive WIC to breastfeed? Pediatrics, 139, e20163828.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-3828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gamble, C., & Hart, C. (2003). The use of psychosocial interventions. Nursing Times, 99, 46–47.Google Scholar
  32. Gardiner, C. K., & Bryan, A. D. (2017). Monetary incentive interventions can enhance psychological factors related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 51, 599–609.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-017-9882-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grant, T., Ernst, C. C., Pagalilauan, G., & Streissguth, A. (2003). Postprogram follow-up effects of paraprofessional intervention with high-risk women who abused alcohol and drugs during pregnancy. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 211–222.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.10048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hartzler, B., Lash, S. J., & Roll, J. M. (2012). Contingency management in substance abuse treatment: a structured review of the evidence for its transportability. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 122, 1–2), 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.11.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heil, S. H., Hand, D. J., Sigmon, S. C., Badger, G. J., Meyer, M. C., & Higgins, S. T. (2016). Using behavioral economic theory to increase use of effective contraceptives among opioid-maintained women at risk of unintended pregnancy. Preventive Medicine, 92, 62–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.06.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Higgins, S. T., Bickel, W. K., & Hughes, J. R. (1994). Influence of an alternative reinforcer on human cocaine self-administration. Life Sciences, 55, 179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Higgins, S. T., Budney, A. J., Bickel, W. K., Hughes, J. R., Foerg, F., & Badger, G. (1993). Achieving cocaine abstinence with a behavioral approach. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 763–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Higgins, S. T., & Petry, N. M. (1999). Contingency management. Incentives for sobriety. Alcohol Research & Health, 23, 122–127.Google Scholar
  39. Higgins, S. T., Silverman, K., & Heil, S. H. (Eds.). (2008). Contingency management in substance abuse treatment. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Higgins, S. T., Washio, Y., Heil, S. H., Solomon, L. J., Gaalema, D. E., Higgins, T. M., & Bernstein, I. M. (2012). Financial incentives for smoking cessation among pregnant and newly postpartum women. Preventive Medicine, 55, S33–S40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.12.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Howell, E. A., Bodnar-Deren, S., Balbierz, A., Parides, M., & Bickell, N. (2014). An intervention to extend breastfeeding among black and Latina mothers after delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 210, 239.e1–239.e5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2013.11.028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ip, S., Chung, M., Raman, G., Chew, P., Magula, N., Devine, D., . . . Lau, J. (2007). Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries (AHRQ Publication No. 07-E007). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) website: https://archive.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/brfout/brfout.pdf.
  43. Jaacks, L. M., Kavle, J., Perry, A., & Nyaku, A. (2017). Programming maternal and child overweight and obesity in the context of undernutrition: current evidence and key considerations for low- and middle-income countries. Public Health Nutrition, 20, 1286–1296.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980016003323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Janisse, J. J., Bailey, B. A., Ager, J., & Sokol, R. J. (2014). Alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, and marijuana use: Relative contributions to preterm delivery and fetal growth restriction. Substance Abuse, 35, 60–67.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08897077.2013.804483.
  45. Kamboj, A. K., & Krishna, S. G. (2017). Pokémon GO: An innovative smartphone gaming application with health benefits. Primary Care Diabetes, 11, 397–399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2017.03.008.
  46. Kelley, D. P., & Wine, B. (2016). A review of Consumer Behavior Analysis: (A) Rational Approach to Consumer Choice by David P. Kelley III and Byron Wine. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 36, 94–97.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01608061.2015.1093054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kerwin, M. E., Farris, M. D., & Hantula, D. A. (2012). Consumer choices of women in residential drug treatment: An analysis of risk and impulsivity. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 834–849.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00830.x.
  48. Klein, E. P. (2014). Patient health incentives: Ethical challenges and frameworks. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 995–1004.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-013-9373-3.
  49. Kurti, A. N., & Dallery, J. (2013). Internet-based contingency management increases walking in sedentary adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 568–581.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Langer, A., Meleis, A., Knaul, F. M., Atun, R., Aran, M., Arreola-Ornelas, H., . . . Frenk, J. (2015). Women and health: The key for sustainable development. The Lancet, 386, 1165–1210.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60497-4.
  51. Logan, C. A., Rothenbacher, D., & Genuneit, J. (2017). Postpartum smoking relapse and breast feeding: Defining the window of opportunity for intervention. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 19, 367–372.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw224.
  52. Lui, S., Terplan, M., & Smith, E. J. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for women enrolled in alcohol treatment during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008(3).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006753.pub2.
  53. Lussier, J. P., Heil, S. H., Mongeon, J. A., Badger, G. J., & Higgins, S. T. (2006). A meta-analysis of voucher-based reinforcement therapy for substance use disorders. Addiction, 101, 192–203.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01311.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Magro-Malosso, E. R., Saccone, G., Di Mascio, D., Di Tommaso, M., & Berghella, V. (2017). Exercise during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth in overweight and obese women: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 96, 263–273.  https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13087.
  55. Max, W., Sung, H.-Y., & Shi, Y. (2015). The cost of secondhand smoke exposure at home in California. Tobacco Control, 24, 205–210.  https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. May, P. A., Hasken, J. M., Blankenship, J., Marais, A.-S., Joubert, B., Cloete, M., . . . Seedat, S. (2016). Breastfeeding and maternal alcohol use: Prevalence and effects on child outcomes and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Reproductive Toxicology, 63, 13–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.05.002.
  57. Meredith, S., Jarvis, B., Raiff, B., Rojewski, A., Cassidy, R., Erb, P., . . . Kurti, A. (2014). The ABCs of incentive-based treatment in health care: A behavior analytic framework to inform research and practice. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 7, 103–114.  https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S59792.
  58. Meredith, S. E., Grabinski, M. J., & Dallery, J. (2011). Internet-based group contingency management to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking: A feasibility study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118, 23–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.02.012.
  59. Miller, W. R., Meyers, R. J., & Hiller-Sturmhöfel, S. (1999). The community-reinforcement approach. Alcohol Research & Health, 23, 116–121.Google Scholar
  60. Moran, V. H., Morgan, H., Rothnie, K., MacLennan, G., Stewart, F., Thomson, G., . . . Hoddinott, P. (2015). Incentives to promote breastfeeding: A systematic review. Pediatrics, 135, e687–e702.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-2221.
  61. Morgan, L., Stanton, M. E., Higgs, E. S., Balster, R. L., Bellows, B. W., Brandes, N., . . . Koblinsky, M. (2013). Financial incentives and maternal health: Where do we go from here? Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 31(4 Suppl. 2), 8–22.Google Scholar
  62. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). (2010). NICE Citizens Council meeting: the use of incentives to improve health. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0091203/pdf/PubMedHealth_PMH0091203.pdf.
  63. NEOVITA Study Group. (2016). Timing of initiation, patterns of breastfeeding, and infant survival: Prospective analysis of pooled data from three randomised trials. The Lancet Global Health, 4, e266–e275.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(16)00040-1.
  64. Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Knudtson, M. D., Anson, E., Smith, J. A., & Cole, R. (2014). Effect of home visiting by nurses on maternal and child mortality. JAMA Pediatrics, 168, 800–806.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Patnode, C. D., Henderson, J. T., Thompson, J. H., Senger, C. A., Fortmann, S. P., & Whitlock, E. P. (2015). Behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco cessation in adults, including pregnant women: A review of reviews for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 163, 608–621.  https://doi.org/10.7326/M15-0171.
  66. Paul-Ebhohimhen, V., & Avenell, A. (2008). Systematic review of the use of financial incentives in treatments for obesity and overweight. Obesity Reviews, 9, 355–367.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00409.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Paxton, R. (1983). Prolonging the effects of deposit contracts with smokers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 21, 425–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Petry, N. M., Alessi, S. M., & Ledgerwood, D. M. (2012). A randomized trial of contingency management delivered by community therapists. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 286–298.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pettifor, A., MacPhail, C., Nguyen, N., & Rosenberg, M. (2012). Can money prevent the spread of HIV? A review of cash payments for HIV prevention. AIDS and Behavior, 16, 1729–1738.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-012-0240-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Philipp, B. L., Merewood, A., Miller, L. W., Chawla, N., Murphy-Smith, M. M., Gomes, J. S., . . . Cook, J. T. (2001). Baby-friendly hospital initiative improves breastfeeding initiation rates in a US hospital setting. Pediatrics, 108, 677–681.Google Scholar
  71. Pollak, K. I., Fish, L. J., Lyna, P., Peterson, B. L., Myers, E. R., Gao, X., . . . Pletsch, P. K. (2016). Efficacy of a nurse-delivered intervention to prevent and delay postpartum return to smoking: the quit for two trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 18, 1960–1966.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntw108.
  72. Popova, S., Lange, S., Burd, L., Chudley, A. E., Clarren, S. K., & Rehm, J. (2013). Cost of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder diagnosis in Canada. PLoS One, 8, e60434.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Popova, S., Lange, S., Burd, L., & Rehm, J. (2012). Health care burden and cost associated with fetal alcohol syndrome: Based on official Canadian data. PLoS One, 7, e43024.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043024.
  74. Raftery, J., Kerr, C., Hawker, S., & Powell, J. (2009). Paying clinicians to join clinical trials: A review of guidelines and interview study of trialists. Trials, 10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-10-15.
  75. Rahman, M. M., Abe, S. K., Rahman, M. S., Kanda, M., Narita, S., Bilano, V., . . . Shibuya, K. (2016). Maternal anemia and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103, 495–504.  https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.107896.
  76. Rasmussen, C., Kully-Martens, K., Denys, K., Badry, D., Henneveld, D., Wyper, K., & Grant, T. (2012). The effectiveness of a community-based intervention program for women at-risk for giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Community Mental Health Journal, 48, 12–21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-010-9342-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rimer, B. K., Glanz, K., & Rasband, G. (2001). Searching for evidence about health education and health behavior interventions. Health Education & Behavior, 28, 231–248.  https://doi.org/10.1177/109019810102800208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Risica, P. M., Gavarkovs, A., Parker, D. R., Jennings, E., & Phipps, M. (2017). A tailored video intervention to reduce smoking and environmental tobacco exposure during and after pregnancy: Rationale, design and methods of Baby’s breath. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 52, 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2016.10.010.
  79. Rocca, P. V. (2017). A sad state of affairs. Delaware Medical Journal, 89, 20.Google Scholar
  80. Rosenblatt, K. A., & Thomas, D. B. (1993). Lactation and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. International Journal of Epidemiology, 22, 192–197.Google Scholar
  81. Schottenfeld, R. S., Moore, B., & Pantalon, M. V. (2011). Contingency management with community reinforcement approach or twelve-step facilitation drug counseling for cocaine dependent pregnant women or women with young children. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118, 48–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.02.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sexton-Radek, K. (2014). Single case designs in psychology practice. Health Psychology Research, 2.  https://doi.org/10.4081/hpr.2014.1551.
  83. Sinigaglia, O. E., Ríos, E. M., Campos, M., Díaz, B., & Palacios, C. (2016). Breastfeeding practices, timing of introduction of complementary beverages and foods and weight status in infants and toddlers participants of a WIC clinic in Puerto Rico. SpringerPlus, 5, 1437.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3154-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith, E. J., Lui, S., & Terplan, M. (2009). Pharmacologic interventions for pregnant women enrolled in alcohol treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2009(3).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007361.pub2.
  85. Smith, J. D. (2012). Single-case experimental designs: A systematic review of published research and current standards. Psychological Methods, 17, 510–550.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029312.
  86. Smithers, L. G., Kramer, M. S., & Lynch, J. W. (2015). Effects of breastfeeding on obesity and intelligence: Causal insights from different study designs. JAMA Pediatrics, 169, 707–708.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0175.
  87. Stade, B. C., Bailey, C., Dzendoletas, D., Sgro, M., Dowswell, T., & Bennett, D. (2009). Psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2009(2).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004228.pub2.
  88. Stanton, M. E., Higgs, E. S., & Koblinsky, M. (2013). Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: An introduction. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 31(4 Suppl. 2), 1–7.Google Scholar
  89. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2015). Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed tables. Retrieved from https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-DetTabs-2015/NSDUH-DetTabs-2015/NSDUH-DetTabs-2015.htm#tab6-72b.
  90. Tay, R. Y., Wilson, J., McCormack, C., Allsop, S., Najman, J. M., Burns, L., . . . Hutchinson, D. (2017). Alcohol consumption by breastfeeding mothers: frequency, correlates and infant outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Review, 36, 667–676.  https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12473.
  91. Till, S. R., Everetts, D., & Haas, D. M. (2015). Incentives for increasing prenatal care use by women in order to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2015(12).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009916.pub2.
  92. Treyster, Z., & Gitterman, B. (2011). Second hand smoke exposure in children: Environmental factors, physiological effects, and interventions within pediatrics. Reviews on Environmental Health, 26, 187–195.Google Scholar
  93. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Executive summary: The surgeon general’s call to action to support breastfeeding. Retrieved from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/breastfeeding/executivesummary.pdf.
  94. Volpp, K. G., John, L. K., Troxel, A. B., Norton, L., Fassbender, J., & Loewenstein, G. (2008). Financial incentive-based approaches for weight loss: A randomized trial. JAMA, 300, 2631–2637.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2008.804.
  95. Washington, W. D., Banna, K. M., & Gibson, A. L. (2014). Preliminary efficacy of prize-based contingency management to increase activity levels in healthy adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 231–245.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Washio, Y., Archibald, A., Frederick, J., & Crowe, J. A. (2017). Community-based pilot program “My Baby’s Breath” to reduce prenatal alcohol use. Delaware Medical Journal, 89, 46–51.Google Scholar
  97. Washio, Y., Humphreys, M., Colchado, E., Sierra-Ortiz, M., Zhang, Z., Collins, B. N., . . . Kirby, K. C. (2017). Incentive-based intervention to maintain breastfeeding among low-income Puerto Rican mothers. Pediatrics, 139, e20163119.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-3119.
  98. Washio, Y., Mericle, A. A., Cassey, H., Daubert, A. M., & Kirby, K. C. (2016). Characteristics of low-income racial/ethnic minority pregnant women screening positive for alcohol risk. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 18, 850–855.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-015-0238-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Winett, R. A., Moore, J. F., & Anderson, E. S. (1991). Extending the concept of social validity: Behavior analysis for disease prevention and health promotion. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 215–230.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1991.24-215.
  100. Witter, S., Fretheim, A., Kessy, F. L., & Lindahl, A. K. (2012). Paying for performance to improve the delivery of health interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012(2).  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007899.pub2.
  101. Working Group on Incentives for Living Donation. (2012). Incentives for organ donation: Proposed standards for an internationally acceptable system. American Journal of Transplantation, 12, 306–312.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03881.x.
  102. World Health Organization NCD Alliance. (2011). Non-communicable diseases: A priority for women’s health and development. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/pmnch/topics/maternal/2011_women_ncd_report.pdf.pdf.
  103. Yeo, S., Walker, J. S., Caughey, M. C., Ferraro, A. M., & Asafu-Adjei, J. K. (2017). What characteristics of nutrition and physical activity interventions are key to effectively reducing weight gain in obese or overweight pregnant women? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews, 18, 385–399.  https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Christiana Care Health SystemNewarkUSA
  2. 2.University of DelawareNewarkUSA
  3. 3.Bancroft NeurohealthCherry HillUSA

Personalised recommendations