Advertisement

Perspectives on Behavior Science

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 189–213 | Cite as

Related to Anxiety: Arbitrarily Applicable Relational Responding and Experimental Psychopathology Research on Fear and Avoidance

  • Simon Dymond
  • Marc Bennett
  • Sean Boyle
  • Bryan Roche
  • Michael Schlund
Article

Abstract

Humans have an unparalleled ability to engage in arbitrarily applicable relational responding (AARR). One of the consequences of this ability to spontaneously combine and relate events from the past, present, and future may, in fact, be a propensity to suffer. For instance, maladaptive fear and avoidance of remote or derived threats may actually perpetuate anxiety. In this narrative review, we consider contemporary AARR research on fear and avoidance as it relates to anxiety. We first describe laboratory-based research on the emergent spread of fear- and avoidance-eliciting functions in humans. Next, we consider the validity of AARR research on fear and avoidance and address the therapeutic implications of the work. Finally, we outline challenges and opportunities for a greater synthesis between behavior analysis research on AARR and experimental psychopathology.

Keywords

Arbitrarily applicable relational responding Stimulus relations Generalization Experimental psychopathology Fear Avoidance Anxiety 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This manuscript does not contain the findings of original research.

References

  1. Acuna, B. D., Eliassen, J. C., Donoghue, J. P., & Sanes, J. N. (2002). Frontal and parietal lobe activation during transitive inference in humans. Cerebral Cortex, 12, 1312–1321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Augustson, E. M., & Dougher, M. J. (1997). The transfer of avoidance evoking functions through stimulus equivalence classes. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 28, 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Augustson, E. M., Dougher, M. J., & Markham, M. R. (2000). Emergence of conditional stimulus relations and transfer of respondent eliciting functions among compound stimuli. The Psychological Record, 50, 745–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avery, S. N., Williams, L. E., Woolard, A. A., & Heckers, S. (2014). Relational memory and hippocampal function in psychotic bipolar disorder. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 264, 199–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin, D. S., Allgulander, C., Altamura, A. C., Angst, J., Bandelow, B., den Boer, J., et al. (2010). Manifesto for a European anxiety disorders research network. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 20, 426–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes-Holmes, Y., Hussey, I., McEnteggart, C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Foody, M. (2016). Scientific ambition: the relationship between relational frame theory and middle-level terms in acceptance and commitment therapy. In R. D. Zettle, S. C. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & A. Biglan (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of contextual behavioral science (pp. 365–382). London: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  8. Barrera, T. L., Szafranski, D. D., Ratcliff, C. G., Garnaat, S. L., & Norton, P. J. (2016). An experimental comparison of techniques: cognitive defusion, cognitive restructuring, and in-vivo exposure for social anxiety. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44, 249–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett, M., Hermans, D., Dymond, S., Vervoort, E., & Baeyens, F. (2015a). From bad to worse: symbolic equivalence and opposition in fear generalisation. Cognition & Emotion, 29, 1137–1145.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2014.973833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennett, M., Meulders, A., Baeyens, F., & Vlaeyen, J. W. S. (2015b). Words putting pain in motion: the generalization of pain-related fear within an artificial stimulus category. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 520.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00520.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennett, M., Vervoort, E., Boddez, Y., Hermans, D., & Baeyens, F. (2015c). Perceptual and conceptual similarities facilitate the generalization of instructed fear. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 48, 149–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blackledge, J. T. (2007). Disrupting verbal processes: cognitive defusion in acceptance and commitment therapy and other mindfulness-based psychotherapies. The Psychological Record, 57, 555–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blackledge, J. T. (2015). Cognitive defusion in practice: a clinician’s guide to assessing, observing, and supporting change in your client. Oakland: New Harbinger.Google Scholar
  14. Blackledge, J. T., Moran, D. J., & Ellis, A. E. (2009). Bridging the divide: linking basic science to applied psychotherapeutic interventions—a relational frame theory account of cognitive disputation in rational emotive behavior therapy. Journal of Rational- Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 27, 232–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boddez, Y., Baeyens, F., Hermans, D., & Beckers, T. (2014). A learning theory approach to anxiety disorders: human fear conditioning and the added value of complex acquisition procedures. In T. W. A. Ehring & P. Emmelkamp (Eds.), International handbook of anxiety disorders: theory, research and practice (pp. 85–104). London: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  16. Boddez, Y., Bennett, M., van Esch, S., & Beckers, T. (2017). Bending rules: the shape of the perceptual generalisation gradient is sensitive to inference rules. Cognition & Emotion, 31, 1444–1452.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2016.1230541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boddez, Y., Davey, G., & Vervliet, B. (2016). Editorial: experimental psychopathology: defining the field. Psychopathology Review, 4, 109–111.Google Scholar
  18. Bouton, M. E., Mineka, S., & Barlow, D. H. (2001). A modern learning theory perspective on the etiology of panic disorder. Psychological Review, 108, 4–32.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.1.4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boyle, S., Roche, B., Dymond, S., & Hermans, D. (2016). Generalisation of fear and avoidance along a semantic continuum. Cognition & Emotion, 30, 340–352.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2014.1000831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark, D. A., & Beck, A. T. (2010). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: science and practice. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  21. Coelho, C. M., & Purkis, H. (2009). The origins of specific phobias: influential theories and current perspectives. Review of General Psychology, 13, 335–348.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Craske, M. G., Hermans, D., & Vansteenwegen, D. (2006). Fear and learning: basic science to clinical application. Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  23. Craske, M. G., Rauch, S. L., Ursano, R., Prenoveau, J., Pine, D. S., & Zinbargh, R. E. (2009). What is an anxiety disorder? Depression and Anxiety, 26, 1066–1085.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Craske, M. G., Treanor, M., Conway, C., Zbozinek, T., & Vervliet, B. (2014). Maximizing exposure therapy: an inhibitory learning approach. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 58, 10–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2014.04.006.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Critchfield, T. S., & Reed, D. D. (2017). The fuzzy concept of applied behavior analysis research. The Behavior Analyst, 40, 123–159.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-017-0093-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Houwer, J. (2017). A functional-cognitive framework for cooperation between functional and cognitive researchers in the context of stimulus relations research. The Behavior Analyst. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-017-0089-6.
  27. De Houwer, J., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2017). What is cognition? A functional-cognitive perspective. In S. C. Hayes & S. G. Hofmann (Eds.), Core processes of cognitive behavioral therapies. New Harbinger: Oakland.Google Scholar
  28. Dickins, D. W., Singh, K. D., Roberts, N., Burns, P., Downes, J. J., Jimmieson, P., & Bentall, R. P. (2001). An fMRI study of stimulus equivalence. Neuroreport, 12, 405–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dougher, M. J., Augustson, E., Markham, M. R., Greenway, D. E., & Wulfert, E. (1994). The transfer of respondent eliciting and extinction functions through stimulus equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 62, 331–351.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dougher, M. J., Hamilton, D. A., Fink, B. C., & Harrington, J. (2007). Transformation of the discriminative and eliciting functions of generalized relational stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 88, 179–197.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2007.45-05.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dunsmoor, J. E., Kroes, M. C. W., Braren, S. H., & Phelps, E. A. (2017). Threat intensity widens fear generalization gradients. Behavioral Neuroscience, 131, 168–175.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dunsmoor, J. E., Martin, A., & LaBar, K. S. (2012). Role of conceptual knowledge in learning and retention of conditioned fear. Biological Psychology, 89, 300–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.11.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dunsmoor, J. E., & Murphy, G. L. (2015). Categories, concepts, and conditioning: how humans generalize fear. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19, 73–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dunsmoor, J. E., & Paz, R. (2015). Fear generalization and anxiety: behavioral and neural mechanisms. Biological Psychiatry, 78, 336–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dunsmoor, J. E., Prince, S. E., Murty, V. P., Kragel, P. A., & LaBar, K. S. (2011). Neurobehavioral mechanisms of human fear generalization. NeuroImage, 55, 1878–1888.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.01.041.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dymond, S., & Barnes, D. (1995). A transformation of self-discrimination response functions in accordance with the arbitrarily applicable relations of sameness, more than, and less than. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 64, 163–184.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dymond, S., Dunsmoor, J. E., Vervliet, B., Roche, B., & Hermans, D. (2015). Fear generalization in humans: systematic review and implications for anxiety disorder research. Behavior Therapy, 46, 561–582.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2014.10.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dymond, S., Molet, M., & Davies, L. (2017). The impact of arbitrarily applicable relational responding on evaluative learning about hypothetical money and shock outcomes. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 1684–1699.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2016.1200639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dymond, S., & Rehfeldt, R. (2000). Understanding complex behavior: the transformation of stimulus functions. The Behavior Analyst, 23, 239–254.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dymond, S., & Roche, B. (2009). A contemporary behavior analysis of anxiety and avoidance. The Behavior Analyst, 32, 7–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dymond, S., & Roche, B. (Eds.). (2013). Advances in relational frame theory: research and application. Oakland: New Harbinger.Google Scholar
  42. Dymond, S., Roche, B., & Bennett, M. (2013). Relational frame theory and experimental psychopathology. In S. Dymond & B. Roche (Eds.), Advances in relational frame theory: research and application (pp. 199–218). Oakland: New Harbinger.Google Scholar
  43. Dymond, S., Roche, B., Forsyth, J. P., Whelan, R., & Rhoden, J. (2007). Transformation of avoidance response functions in accordance with same and opposite relational frames. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 88, 249–262.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2007.22-07.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dymond, S., Roche, B., Forsyth, J. P., Whelan, R., & Rhoden, J. (2008). Derived avoidance learning: transformation of avoidance response functions in accordance with the relational frames of same and opposite. The Psychological Record, 58, 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dymond, S., Schlund, M. W., Roche, B., De Houwer, J., & Freegard, G. (2012). Safe from harm: learned, instructed, and symbolic generalization pathways of human threat-avoidance. PLoS One, 7.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047539.
  46. Dymond, S., Schlund, M. W., Roche, B., & Whelan, R. (2014). The spread of fear: symbolic generalization mediates graded threat-avoidance in specific phobia. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67, 247–259.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.800124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dymond, S., Schlund, M., Roche, B., Whelan, R., Richards, J., & Davies, C. (2011). Inferred threat and safety: symbolic generalization of human avoidance learning. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 614–621.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Foody, M., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Luciano, C. (2013). An empirical investigation of hierarchical versus distinction relations in a self-based ACT exercise. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 13, 373–388.Google Scholar
  50. Forsyth, J. P., & Eifert, G. H. (1996). The language of feeling and the feeling of anxiety: contributions of the behaviorisms toward understanding the function-altering effects of language. The Psychological Record, 46, 607–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Friman, P. C., Hayes, S. C., & Wilson, K. G. (1998). Why behavior analysts should study emotion: the example of anxiety. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 137–156.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1998.31-137.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gannon, S., Roche, B., Kanter, J. W., Forsyth, J. P., & Linehan, C. (2011). A derived relations analysis of approach-avoidance conflict: implications for the behavioral analysis of human anxiety. The Psychological Record, 61, 227–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Garcia-Guerrero, S., Dickins, T. E., & Dickins, D. W. (2014). The gradual extinction of transferred avoidance stimulus functions. Psychological Record, 64, 581–599.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-014-0062-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grillon, C. (2008). Models and mechanisms of anxiety: evidence from startle studies. Psychopharmacology, 199, 421–437.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-007-1019-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Guinther, P. M., & Dougher, M. J. (2015). The clinical relevance of stimulus equivalence and relational frame theory in influencing the behavior of verbally competent adults. Current Opinion in Psychology, 2, 21–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hayes, S. C. (1992). Verbal relations, time, and suicide. In S. C. Hayes & L. J. Hayes (Eds.), Understanding verbal relations (pp. 109–120). Reno: Context Press.Google Scholar
  57. Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy, 35, 639–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hayes, S. C., Barnes-Holmes, B., & Roche, B. (2001). Relational frame theory: a post-Skinnerian account of language and cognition. New York: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  59. Hayes, S. C., & Hayes, L. J. (1992). Verbal relations and the evolution of behavior analysis. American Psychologist, 47, 1383–1395.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.11.1383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hayes, S. C., Levin, M. E., Plumb-Vilardaga, J., Villate, J. L., & Pistorello, J. (2013). Acceptance and commitment therapy and contextual behavioral science: examining the progress of a distinctive model of behavioral and cognitive therapy. Behavior Therapy, 44, 180–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.08.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: model, processes and outcomes. Behavior Research & Therapy, 44, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., & Wilson, K. G. (2011). Acceptance and commitment therapy: the process and practice of mindful change (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  63. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: the process and practice of mindful change (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  64. Hermans, D., & Baeyens, F. (2013). Generalization as a basis for emotional change: perceptual and non-perceptual processes. In D. Hermans, B. Rimé, & B. Mesquita (Eds.), Changing emotions (pp. 67–73). Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  65. Hermans, D., Baeyens, F., & Vervliet, B. (2013). Generalization of acquired emotional responses. In M. D. Robinson, E. R. Watkins, & E. Harmon-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 117–134). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  66. Higgins, S. T., & Morris, E. K. (1984). Generality of free-operant avoidance conditioning to human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 247–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hinton, E. C., Dymond, S., Von Hecker, U., & Evans, C. J. (2010). Neural correlates of relational reasoning and the symbolic distance effect: involvement of parietal cortex. Neuroscience, 168, 138–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hooper, N., & McHugh, L. (2013). Cognitive defusion versus thought distraction in the mitigation of learned helplessness. The Psychological Record, 63, 209–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Killeen, P. R., & Jacobs, K. W. (2017). Coal is not black, snow is not white, food is not a reinforcer: the roles of affordances and dispositions in the analysis of behavior. The Behavior Analyst, 40, 17–38.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-016-0080-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kirlic, N., Young, J., & Aupperle, R. L. (2017). Animal to human translational paradigms relevant for approach avoidance conflict decision making. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 96, 14–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2017.04.010.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Klabunde, M., Saggar, M., Hustyi, K. M., Kelley, R. G., Reiss, A. L., & Hall, S. S. (2015). Examining the neural correlates of emergent equivalence relations in fragile X syndrome. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 233, 373–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Królicki, L., & Wróbel, A. (2011). A role for the right prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex in four-term transitive reasoning: an fMRI study with abstract linear syllogism tasks. Acta Neurobiologae Experimentalis, 71, 479–495.Google Scholar
  73. Krypotos, A., Effting, M., Kindt, M., & Beckers, T. (2015). Avoidance learning: a review of theoretical models and recent developments. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 189.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00189.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lamal, P. A. (1998). Advancing backwards. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 705–706.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. LeDoux, J. E. (2014). Coming to terms with fear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, 2871–2878.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1400335111.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. LeDoux, J. E., Moscarello, J., Sears, R., & Campese, V. (2016). The birth, death and resurrection of avoidance: a reconceptualization of a troubled paradigm. Molecular Psychiatry, 22, 24–36.  https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2016.166.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lenaert, B., Boddez, Y., Griffith, J. W., Vervliet, B., Schruers, K., & Hermans, D. (2014). Aversive learning and generalization predict subclinical levels of anxiety: a six-month longitudinal study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 747–753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Leslie, J. C., Tierney, K. J., Robinson, C. P., Keenan, M., Watt, A., & Barnes, D. (1993). Differences between clinically anxious and non-anxious participants in a stimulus equivalence training task involving threat words. The Psychological Record, 43, 153–161.Google Scholar
  79. Levin, M., & Villatte, M. (2016). The role of experimental psychopathology and laboratory-based intervention studies in contextual behavioral science. In S. C. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, R. Zettle, & T. Biglan (Eds.), Handbook of contextual behavioral science (pp. 347–364). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  80. Lewon, M., & Hayes, L. J. (2014). Toward an analysis of emotions as products of motivating operation. Psychological Record, 64, 813–825.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-014-0046-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lissek, S. (2012). Toward an account of clinical anxiety predicated on basic, neurally mapped mechanisms of Pavlovian fear-learning: the case for conditioned overgeneralization. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 257–263.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.21922.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lissek, S., Bradford, D. E., Alvarez, R. P., Burton, P., Espensen-Sturges, T., Reynolds, R. C., & Grillon, C. (2014). Neural substrates of classically conditioned fear-generalization in humans: a parametric fMRI study. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 1134–1142.  https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nst096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lonsdorf, T. B., Menz, M. M., Andreatta, M., Fullana, M. A., Golkar, A., Haaker, J., et al. (2017). Don’t fear ‘fear conditioning’: methodological considerations for the design and analysis of studies on human fear acquisition, extinction, and return of fear. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 77, 247–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. López-López, J. C., & Luciano, C. (2017). An experimental analysis of defusion interactions based on deictic and hierarchical framings and their impact on cognitive performance. The Psychological Record, 67, 485–497.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-017-0250-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Luciano, C., Valdivia-Salas, S., Ruiz, F. J., Rodríguez-Valverde, M., Barnes-Holmes, D., Dougher, M. J.,. .. Gutierrez, G. (2013). Extinction of aversive eliciting functions as an analog of exposure to conditioned fear: does it alter avoidance responding? Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 2, 120–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Luciano, C., Valdivia-Salas, S., Ruiz, F. J., Rodríguez-Valverde, M., Barnes-Holmes, D., Dougher, M. J., et al. (2014). Effects of an acceptance/defusion intervention on experimentally induced generalized avoidance: a laboratory demonstration. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 101, 94–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Markham, M. R., Dougher, M. J., & Augustson, E. (2002). Transfer of operant discrimination and respondent elicitation via emergent relations of compound stimuli. The Psychological Record, 52, 325–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Markham, R. G., & Markham, M. R. (2002). On the role of covarying functions in stimulus class formation and transfer of function. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78, 509–524.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Marks, I. M. (1987). Fears, phobias, and rituals. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Masuda, A., Hayes, S. C., Sackett, C. F., & Twohig, M. P. (2004). Cognitive defusion and self-relevant negative thoughts: examining the impact of a ninety year old technique. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 477–485.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2003.10.008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. May, R. J., Stewart, I., Baez, L., Freegard, G., & Dymond, S. (2017). Arbitrarily applicable spatial relational responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 107, 234–257.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jeab.250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McEnteggart, C., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Hussey, I., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2015). The ties between a basic science of language and cognition and its clinical applications. Current Opinion in Psychology, 2, 56–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Medina, M. A. L., Valverde, M. R., & Lopez, M. H. (2016). Transfer of conditioned fear-potentiated startle across equivalence classes: an exploratory study. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 16, 249–263.Google Scholar
  94. Meulders, A., Vandebroek, N., Vervliet, B., & Vlaeyen, J. W. S. (2013). Generalization gradients in cued and contextual pain-related fear: an experimental study in healthy participants. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 345.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00345.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Meulders, A., & Vlaeyen, J. W. (2013). The acquisition and generalization of cued and contextual pain-related fear: an experimental study using a voluntary movement paradigm. Pain, 154, 272–282.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2012.10.025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Moors, A. (2014). Flavors of appraisal theories of emotion. Emotion Review, 6, 303–307.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073914534477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Moss-Lourenco, P., & Fields, L. (2011). Nodal structure and stimulus relatedness in equivalence classes: post-class formation preference tests. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 95, 343–368.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ogawa, A., Yamazaki, Y., Ueno, K., Cheng, K., & Iriki, A. (2010). Neural correlates of species-typical illogical cognitive bias in human inference. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 2120–2130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Onat, S., & Buchel, C. (2015). The neuronal basis of fear generalization in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 18, 1811–1818.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Onwuameze, O. E., Titone, D., & Ho, B. C. (2016). Transitive inference deficits in unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia Research, 175, 64–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Paré, D., & Quirk, G. J. (2017). When scientific paradigms lead to tunnel vision: lessons from the study of fear. NPJ Science of Learning, 2.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41539-017-0007-4.
  102. Rachman, S. J. (1977). The conditioning theory of fear acquisition: a critical examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 375–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ritzert, T. R., Forsyth, J. P., Berghoff, C. R., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Nicholson, E. (2015). The impact of a cognitive defusion intervention on behavioral and psychological flexibility: an experimental evaluation in a spider fearful non-clinical sample. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4, 112–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Roche, B., Kanter, J. W., Brown, K. R., Dymond, S., & Fogarty, C. C. (2008). A comparison of “direct” versus “derived” extinction of avoidance. The Psychological Record, 58, 443–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rodriguez-Valverde, M. R., Luciano, C., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2009). Transfer of aversive respondent elicitation in accordance with equivalence relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 92, 85–111.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2009.92-85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rutherford, A. (2009). Beyond the box: B. F. Skinner’s technology of behavior from laboratory to life, 1950s–1970s. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  107. Scheveneels, S., Boddez, Y., Vervliet, B., & Hermans, D. (2016). The validity of laboratory-based treatment research: bridging the gap between fear extinction and exposure treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 86, 87–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.08.015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schlichting, M. L., & Preston, A. R. (2015). Memory integration: neural mechanisms and implications for behavior. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 1, 1–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schlund, M. W., Brewer, A. T., Magee, S. K., Richman, D. M., Solomon, S., Ludlum, M., & Dymond, S. (2016). The tipping point: value differences and parallel dorsal–ventral frontal circuits gating human approach–avoidance behavior. NeuroImage, 136, 94–105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.04.070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schlund, M. W., Cataldo, M. F., & Hoehn-Saric, R. (2008). Neural correlates of derived relational responding on tests of stimulus equivalence. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 4, 6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schlund, M. W., Hoehn-Saric, R., & Cataldo, M. F. (2007). New knowledge derived from learned knowledge: functional-anatomical correlates of stimulus equivalence. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 87, 287–307.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sidman, M. (1994). Equivalence relations and behavior: a research story. Boston: Authors Cooperative.Google Scholar
  113. Skinner, B. F. (1945). The operational analysis of psychological terms. Psychological Review, 52, 270–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  115. Smyth, S., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Forsyth, J. P. (2006). Derived transfer of simple discrimination and self-reported arousal functions in spider fearful and non-spider-fearful participants. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 85, 223–246.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Solomon, M., Ragland, J. D., Niendam, T. A., Lesh, T. A., Beck, J. S., Matter, J. C., et al. (2015). Atypical learning in autism spectrum disorders: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of transitive inference. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54, 947–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stewart, C., Stewart, I., & Hughes, S. (2016). A contextual behavioral approach to the study of (persecutory) delusions. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 5, 235–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Taylor, I., & O’Reilly, M. F. (1997). Toward a functional analysis of private verbal self-regulation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 43–58.  https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1997.30-43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tyndall, I., Papworth, R., Roche, B., & Bennett, M. (2017). Differential effects of word-repetition rate on cognitive defusion of believability and discomfort of negative self-referential thoughts postintervention and at one-month follow-up. The Psychological Record, 67, 377–386.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-017-0227-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vervliet, B., & Raes, F. (2013). Criteria of validity in experimental psychopathology: application to models of anxiety and depression. Psychological Medicine, 43, 2241–2244.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291712002267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Vervliet, B., Vansteenwegen, D., & Eelen, P. (2004). Generalization of extinguished skin conductance responding in human fear conditioning. Learning & Memory, 11, 555–558.  https://doi.org/10.1101/lm.77404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Vervoort, E., Vervliet, B., Bennett, M., & Baeyens, F. (2014). Generalization of human fear acquisition and extinction within a novel arbitrary stimulus category. PLoS One, 9.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096569.
  123. Vilardaga, R., Hayes, S. C., Levin, M. E., & Muto, T. (2009). Creating a strategy for progress: a contextual behavioral science approach. The Behavior Analyst, 32, 105–133.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Villatte, M., Villatte, J. L., & Hayes, S. C. (2017). A reticulated and progressive strategy for developing clinical applications of RFT. The Psychological Record. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40732-017-0251-2.
  125. Waltz, J. A., Knowlton, B. J., Holyoak, K. J., Boone, K. B., Back-Madruga, C., McPherson, S., et al. (2004). Relational integration and executive function in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychology, 18, 296–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Wittchen, H.-U., Jönsson, B., & Olesen, J. (2005). Editorial: towards a better understanding of the size and burden and cost of brain disorders in Europe. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 15, 355–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zeithamova, D., Dominick, A. L., & Preston, A. R. (2012). Hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal activation during retrieval-mediated learning supports novel inference. Neuron, 75, 168–179.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Behavior Analysis International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Experimental Psychopathology Lab, Department of PsychologySwansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyReykjavík UniversityReykjavíkIceland
  3. 3.Trinity College Institute of NeuroscienceTrinity College DublinDublin 2Ireland
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyMaynooth UniversityMaynoothIreland
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations