Animal Models of Phosphorus Homeostasis
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Purpose of Review
Phosphate homeostasis is a complex process that involves many regulators and multiple organs. In vivo models have been used extensively to study the pathophysiological mechanisms of phosphate disorders. This review focuses on evaluating mouse models generated for the study of disorders of phosphate metabolism.
Over the years, several mouse models have been generated by strategies that knockin or knockout one or more genes that encode for the phosphate transporters or other regulatory factors that directly or indirectly influence phosphate homeostasis. These models have shed light on the pathways involved in phosphate metabolism and the mechanisms that lead to phosphate dysregulation in human diseases.
Animal models are essential tools to study multisystem disorders that affect multiple organs and cell types. In particular, mouse models generated by a variety of genetic approaches have become the preferred mammalian models to study human diseases. Mouse models of phosphate homeostasis have provided valuable insights and enhanced our understanding of the cross talk between bone, kidney, and intestine and the relationships between the key phosphate regulators FGF23, 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3, and PTH.
KeywordsPhosphorus homeostasis Animal models FGF23 Kidney Bone Mineralization
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Laurent Beck and Despina Sitara each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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