Adapting a Global Gender-Transformative Violence Prevention Program for the U.S. Community-Based Setting for Work with Young Men
Extensive practice-based evidence from international settings, as well as in-depth evaluations of programs promoting gender equity, have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing perpetration of violence against women and girls. Such “gender-transformative programs” encourage critical analysis of gender norms, challenge homophobia and gender-based harassment, build skills to question harmful masculine norms, interrupt harmful and disrespectful behaviors, and encourage more equitable behaviors. Here we describe the history of a gender-transformative program, “Program H,” first developed in Brazil and Mexico, the rationale for and evaluation of this original program, and the processes of adaptation for the US urban community-based setting, and highlight the risks as well as opportunities on the work with young men and boys in the future.
KeywordsViolence prevention Young men Masculinities Gender
This study received financial support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U01CE002528 (Clinical Trials #: NCT02427061).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The CDC-funded study to evaluate “Manhood 2.0” was approved by the Human Subjects Research Protection Office of the University of Pittsburgh.
- Abrahams, N., DeVries, K., García-Moreno, C., Pallitto, C., Stöckl, H., & Watts, C. (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Italy: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Allegheny County Health Department (2014). Allegheny County Health Department STD/HIV Program 2014. Annual STD Report. Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
- Allegheny County Health Department (2017) New Page Template. Retrieved from http://www.achd.net/commhealth/index.html#GVAC.
- Barker, G., Nascimento, M., Pulerwitz, J., Ricardo, C., Segundo, M., & Verma, R. (2006). Engaging young men in violence prevention: reflections from Latin America and India. In F. Leach & C. Mitchell (Eds.), Combating Gender Violence In and Around Schools (pp. 143–151). London: Cromwell Press Ltd, UK; PP.Google Scholar
- Barker, G., Nascimento, M., & Ricardo, C. (2007). Engaging men and boys in changing gender-based inequity in health: evidence from programme interventions. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Basile, K.C. (2015). A comprehensive approach to sexual violence prevention, Mass Medical Soc.Google Scholar
- Basile, K. C., Smith, S. G., Breiding, M. J., Black, M. C., & Mahendra, R. (2014). Sexual violence surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended data elements, Version 2.0. Atlanta: National Center for Injury Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
- Basile, K.C., DeGue, S., Jones, K, Freire, K., Dills, J. , Smith, S.G., Raiford, J.L. (2016). STOP SV: a technical package to prevent sexual violence.Google Scholar
- Berkowitz, A. (2002). Fostering men's responsibility for preventing sexual assault. In Fostering men’s responsibility for preventing sexual assault. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Breiding, M. J., Basile, K. C., Smith, S. G., Black, M. C., & Mahendra, R. R. (2015). Intimate partner violence surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended data elements, Version 2.0. Atlanta: National Center for Injury Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2016, Atlanta.Google Scholar
- Decker, M., Miller, E. , McCauley, H.L. , Tancredi, D., Levenson, R. , Waldman, J. , Schoenwald, P., Silverman, J.. Sex trade among young women attending family planning clinics in Northern California, InternationalGoogle Scholar
- Emeades, J., Heilman, B., Namy, S., & Stich, S. (2014). Be a man, change the rules!: findings and lessons from seven years of CARE International Balkans’ Young Men Initiative. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.Google Scholar
- Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of The Oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.Google Scholar
- Friedman, D., & Coben, J. (2001). Allegheny County Injury Surveillance System (ACISS) Firearm Injuries and Fatalities 2000, Department of Emergency Medicine, Center for Violence and Injury Control. Pittsburgh: Allegheny General Hospital.Google Scholar
- Gibbs, A., Washington, L., Willan, S., et al. (2017). The Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV-risk behaviours in Durban, South Africa: Study protocol for a randomized control trial, and baseline characteristics. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Greco, D. , Dawgert, S., (2007). Poverty and sexual violence: building prevention and intervention responses, Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape (PCAR).Google Scholar
- Harvey, A., Garcia-Moreno, C., & Butchart, A. (2007). Primary prevention of intimate-partner violence and sexual violence: background paper for WHO expert meeting May 2-3, 2007. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Violence and Injury Prevention and Disability 2007.Google Scholar
- Heise, L. L. (2011). What works to prevent partner violence? : An evidence overview. Center for Gender Violence and Health. London: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.Google Scholar
- Jewkes, R., Sen, P., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2002). Sexual violence. In E. Krug, L. L. Dahlberg, J. A. Mercy, et al. (Eds.), World Report on Violence and Health (pp. 213–239). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Jewkes R1, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Dunkle K, Puren A, Duvvury N. (2008). Impact of stepping stones on incidence of HIV and HSV-2 and sexual behaviour in rural South Africa: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 337, a506. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a506.
- Kim, J. C., Watts, C. H., Hargreaves, J. R., Ndhlovu, L. X., Phetla, G., Morison, L. A., Busza, J., Porter, J. D., & Pronyk, P. (2007). Understanding the impact of a microfinance-based intervention on women’s empowerment and the reduction of intimate partner violence in South Africa. American journal of public health, 97(10), 1794–1802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kretzmann, J. P., & McKnight, J. L. (1993). Building communities from the inside out: a path toward finding and mobilizing a community’s assets. Evanston: Institute for Policy Research.Google Scholar
- McCauley, H.L., Jaime, M.C., Tancredi, D.J., Silverman, J.G., Decker, M.R., Austin, S.B., . . . Miller, E. (2014). Differences in adolescent relationship abuse perpetration and gender-inequitable attitudes by sport among male high school athletes. The Journal of Adolescent Health. 54(6):742-744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Michau, L. (2008). The SASA ! Activist kit for preventing violence against women and HIV. Kampala: Raising Voices.Google Scholar
- Miller, E., Levenson, R., Herrera, L., Kurek, L., Stofflet, M., & Marin, L. (2012a). Exposure to partner, family, and community violence: gang-affiliated Latina women and risk of unintended pregnancy. Journal of Urban Health-Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 89(1), 74–86.Google Scholar
- National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development, In: N.A. Press (Ed.) Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Pennsylvania Department of Health Division of Health Informatics, Resident Live Births by Age and Race of Mother by Year of Birth; Counties and Pennsylvania, 2011–2015, http://www.statistics.health.pa.gov/HealthStatistics/VitalStatistics/BirthStatistics/Documents/Birth_AgeRaceYear_Cnty_2011_2015.pdf. Accessed 21 Dec 2018.
- Promundo, Instituto PAPAI, Salud y Género & ECOS. (2013). Program H|M|D: a toolkit for action/ engaging youth to achieve gender equity. Rio de Janeiro & Washington, D.C.: Promundo.Google Scholar
- Pulerwitz, J., Segundo, M., Nascimento, M., & Barker, G. (2006). Promoting more gender-equitable norms and behaviors among young men as an HIV/AIDS prevention strategy, Horizons Final Report. Washington, DC: Population Council.Google Scholar
- Pulerwitz, J., Martin, S., Mehta, M., Castillo, T., Kidanu, A., Verani, F., & Tewolde, S. (2010b). Promoting gender equity for HIV and violence prevention: results from the male norms initiative evaluation in Ethiopia. Washington, DC: PATH.Google Scholar
- Pulerwitz, J., Hughes, L., Mehta, M., Kidanu, A., Verani, F., & Tewolde, S. (2015b). Changing gender norms and reducing intimate partner violence: results from a quasi-experimental intervention study with young men in Ethiopia. American Journal of Public Health, 105(1), 132–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ricardo, C., & Verani, F. (2010). Engaging men and boys in gender equality and health: a global toolkit for action. Brazil: United Nations Population Fund.Google Scholar
- Ricardo, C., Nascimento, M., Fonseca, V., & Segundo, M. (2010). Program H and Program M: engaging young men and empowering young women to promote gender equality and health. Washington, D.C.: Pan-American Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Smith, S. G., Chen, J., Basile, K. C., et al. (2017). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010-2012 State Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/NISVS-StateReportBook.pdf. Accessed 16 January 2018.
- Verma, R., Pulerwitz, J., Mahendra, V. S., Khandekar, S., Singh, A. K., Das, S. S., Mehra, S., Nura, A., Barker, G. (2008). “Promoting gender equity as a strategy to reduce HIV risk and gender-based violence among young men in India,” Horizons Final Report. Washington, DC: Population Council.Google Scholar