Advertisement

When Strangers MEET: Making Every Encounter Therapeutic

  • Adrienne Tan
  • Zarah Chaudhary
  • Sanjeev Sockalingam
  • Maria Mylopoulos
Feature: Educational Case Report

One of the essential qualities of the clinician is interest in humanity, for the secret of the care of the patient is in caring for the patient.—F.W. Peabody [1]

A challenge faced by medical educators is how best to prepare future physicians to communicate effectively across the diverse settings and situations in which patient-physician interactions occur. The conceptualization of communication as a set of skills or tasks allows for standardization to ensure a basic level of competence. With more complex clinical encounters (e.g., communicating uncertainty, exploring sensitive issues such as trauma, managing patients who are distressed), an appreciation of context and flexibility may facilitate effective communication [2, 3]. Questions may thus need to be tailored or the clinician may need to respond to an interaction that did not go as planned. Moreover, obtaining a patient’s history of present illness through systematic questioning is also often seen as a means to an end to make a...

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Medical Psychiatry Alliance, a collaborative health partnership of the University of Toronto, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, the Hospital for Sick Children, Trillium Health Partners, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and an anonymous donor.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Disclosure Statement

There are no declarations of interest to report for any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Peabody FW. The care of the patient. JAMA. 2015;313(18):1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Salmon P, Young B. A new paradigm for clinical communication: critical review of literature in cancer care. Med Educ. 2017;51(3):258–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Salmon P, Young B. Creativity in clinical communication: from communication skills to skilled communication. Med Educ. 2011;45(3):217–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nimmon L, Regehr G. The complexity of patients’ health communication social networks: a broadening of physician communication. Teach Learn Med. 2017;1–15.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ilgen JS, Eva KW, Reghr GR. What’s in a label? Is diagnosis the start or the end of clinical reasoning? J Gen Intern Med. 2016;31(4):435–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Silverman J, Kurtz S, Draper J. Skills for communicating with patients. 3rd ed. London: Radcliffe Publishing; 2013.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kurtz S, Silverman J, Benson J, Draper J. Marrying content and process in clinical method teaching: enhancing the Calgary–Cambridge guides. Acad Med. 2003;78(8):802–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing: helping people change. 3rd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Charon R. Narrative and Medicine. NEJM. 2004;350:862–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ravitz P, Lancee WJ, Lawson A, Maunder R, Hunter JJ, Leszcz M, et al. Improving patient-physician communication through coaching of simulated encounters. Acad Psychiatry. 2013;37(2):87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tan A, Chaudhary Z, Hawa R, Mylopoulos M. Healing conversations in medicine: making every encounter therapeutic. Med Educ. 2016;50(11):1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lyons O, Willcock H, Rees J, Archer J. Patient feedback for medical students. Clin Teach. 2009;6(4):254–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cunliffe AL. “On becoming a critically reflexive practitioner” redux: what does it mean to be reflexive? J Manag Educ. 2016;40(6):740–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumagai AK, Naidu T. Reflection, dialogue, and the possibilities of space. Acad Med. 2015;90(3):283–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kapur M. Examining productive failure, productive success, unproductive failure, and unproductive success in learning. Educ Psychol. 2016;51(2):289–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kapur M. Productive failure in learning math. Cogn Sci. 2014;38(5):1008–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schwartz DL, Martin T. Inventing to prepare for future learning: the hidden efficiency of encouraging original student production in statistics instruction. Cogn Instr. 2004;22(2):129–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mylopoulos M, Woods NN. When I say… adaptive expertise. Med Educ. 2017;51(7):685–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Academic Psychiatry 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrienne Tan
    • 1
  • Zarah Chaudhary
    • 1
  • Sanjeev Sockalingam
    • 1
  • Maria Mylopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations