Academic Psychiatry

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 124–128 | Cite as

A Pathway to Freedom: An Evaluation of Screening Tools for the Identification of Trafficking Victims

  • Nadejda Bespalova
  • Juliet Morgan
  • John CoverdaleEmail author
In Depth Article: Systematic Review



Because training residents and faculty to identify human trafficking victims is a major public health priority, the authors review existing assessment tools.


PubMed and Google were searched using combinations of search terms including human, trafficking, sex, labor, screening, identification, and tool.


Nine screening tools that met the inclusion criteria were found. They varied greatly in length, format, target demographic, supporting resources, and other parameters. Only two tools were designed specifically for healthcare providers. Only one tool was formally assessed to be valid and reliable in a pilot project in trafficking victim service organizations, although it has not been validated in the healthcare setting.


This toolbox should facilitate the education of resident physicians and faculty in screening for trafficking victims, assist educators in assessing screening skills, and promote future research on the identification of trafficking victims.


Human trafficking Screening tools Education Identification 



None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Academic Psychiatry 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadejda Bespalova
    • 1
  • Juliet Morgan
    • 1
  • John Coverdale
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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