HIV Dynamics With Immune Responses: Perspectives From Mathematical Modeling
Purpose of Review
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected over 36 million individuals worldwide and presents a tremendous public health concern, yet much remains unknown about the effect of immune responses on infection. In this review, we discuss the current status of mathematical modeling of HIV-immune system dynamics and how advances in modeling approaches have contributed to our understanding of the role of immune responses in virus infection.
Recent advances provide important quantitative findings about CD8+ T cell and antibody responses. Specifically, these models explain important dynamical features such as the intracellular eclipse phase, and they estimate immune escape rates, the timing of MHC downregulation, and the proportion of virus in antibody-viral complexes.
Models of HIV-immune system dynamics, validated with experimental data, advance our quantitative understanding of infection and can generate hypotheses for further experiments. Greater insight on immune responses in HIV infection dynamics can lead to the development of vaccines and ultimately a cure for this infection.
KeywordsVirus dynamics Immune response Mathematical models Virus escape Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) CD8+ T cell responses Antibodies
The authors thank A. T. Dawes, R. Tyson, and C. A. Cobbold for careful reading of the manuscript and helpful comments. This work is supported by NSF grant DMS-1616299 (to NKV), a grant from the Association for Women in Mathematics (to EJS), and an international research award from Washington State University (to EJS).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Recently published papers of particular interest have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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