Extracellular Vesicles: How the External and Internal Environment Can Shape Cell-To-Cell Communication
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Purpose of the review
To summarize the scientific evidence regarding the effects of environmental exposures on extracellular vesicle (EV) release and their contents. As environmental exposures might influence the aging phenotype in a very strict way, we will also report the role of EVs in the biological aging process.
EV research is a new and quickly developing field. With many investigations conducted so far, only a limited number of studies have explored the potential role EVs play in the response and adaptation to environmental stimuli. The investigations available to date have identified several exposures or lifestyle factors able to modify EV trafficking including air pollutants, cigarette smoke, alcohol, obesity, nutrition, physical exercise, and oxidative stress.
EVs are a very promising tool, as biological fluids are easily obtainable biological media that, if successful in identifying early alterations induced by the environment and predictive of disease, would be amenable to use for potential future preventive and diagnostic applications.
KeywordsExtracellular vesicles Exosomes Microvesicles Environmental exposures Aging
V.B. and T.S.N. received support from the European Union Programme “Ideas” (ERC-2011-StG 282413 and ERC-2012-StG 310898).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Kristof Y. Neven, Tim S. Nawrot, and Valentina Bollati declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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